Review Article

Interplay between DNA Methyltransferase 1 and microRNAs During Tumorigenesis

Author(s): Pooja Yadav, Shreetama Bandyopadhayaya, Bridget M. Ford and Chandi Mandal*

Volume 22, Issue 10, 2021

Published on: 20 January, 2021

Page: [1129 - 1148] Pages: 20

DOI: 10.2174/1389450122666210120141546

Price: $65


Cancer is a genetic disease resulting from genomic changes; however, epigenetic alterations act synergistically with these changes during tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Epigenetic variations are gaining more attention as an important regulator in tumor progression, metastasis and therapy resistance. Aberrant DNA methylation at CpG islands is a central event in epigeneticmediated gene silencing of various tumor suppressor genes. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) predominately methylates at CpG islands on hemimethylated DNA substrates in proliferation of cells. DNMT1 has been shown to be overexpressed in various cancer types and exhibits tumor-promoting potential. The major drawbacks to DNMT1-targeted cancer therapy are the adverse effects arising from nucleoside and non-nucleoside based DNMT1 inhibitors. This paper focuses on the regulation of DNMT1 by various microRNAs (miRNAs), which may be assigned as future DNMT1 modulators, and highlights how DNMT1 regulates various miRNAs involved in tumor suppression. Importantly, the role of reciprocal inhibition between DNMT1 and certain miRNAs in tumorigenic potential is approached in this review. Hence, this review seeks to project an efficient and strategic approach using certain miRNAs in conjunction with conventional DNMT1 inhibitors as a novel cancer therapy. It has also been pinpointed to select miRNA candidates associated with DNMT1 regulation that may not only serve as potential biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis, but may also predict the existence of aberrant methylation activity in cancer cells.

Keywords: DNA methyl transferases, DNMT1, epigenetics, miRNAs, cancer, cancer therapeutics.

Graphical Abstract
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