Generic placeholder image

Current Diabetes Reviews


ISSN (Print): 1573-3998
ISSN (Online): 1875-6417

Review Article

Dyslipidemia and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in South Asians: A Review and Discussion of Causes, Challenges and Management Strategies

Author(s): Anum Saeed*, Salim S. Virani, Suresh Mulukutla and Clara K. Chow

Volume 17, Issue 9, 2021

Published on: 12 January, 2021

Article ID: e011221190238 Pages: 13

DOI: 10.2174/1573399817999210112192419

Price: $65


Background: South Asians are at a significantly increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). For a major portion of the South Asian population, the cardiovascular disease events occur at a relatively younger age, are associated with worse outcomes, and have potentially more severe socioeconomic implications compared to their western counterparts.

Methods: The term “South Asian” typically constitutes individuals from India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Maldives, including expatriates as well as their families from these countries. Based on this, South Asians form approximately 25% of the world’s population, with a high ASCVD burden in this group. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiological factors underlying ASCVD in South Asians, the dyslipidemia types and management, and discuss approaches to improve the overall ASCVD prevention efforts in this large subset population of the world. Although the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the excess risk of cardiovascular disease in South Asians are multifactorial, dyslipidemia is a primary risk factor for the incidence and prevalence of this disease. The traditional “South Asian” dyslipidemia pattern includes levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the normal range with a high concentration of LDL particles, elevated triglycerides, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with dysfunctional HDL particles, and high levels of lipoprotein(a).

Conclusion: While combined efforts to study the expatriate South Asians in western countries have been able to identify South Asian specific dyslipidemias, causal associations and optimal management remain relatively less explored. Larger scale studies are needed to better quantify the relationship of each lipid parameter with ASCVD risk among South Asians as well as optimal lipid targets and management strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality in this high-risk group.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, south asian, hyperlipidemia, dyslipidemia, CV prevention, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD).

Volgman AS, Palaniappan LS, Aggarwal NT, et al. American Heart Association Council on epidemiology and prevention; cardiovascular disease and stroke in women and special populations committee of the council on clinical cardiology; council on cardiovascular and stroke nursing; council on quality of care and outcomes research; and stroke council. atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in south asians in the united states: epidemiology, risk factors, and treatments: a scientific statement from the american heart association Circulation 2018; 138(1): e1-e34.
[] [PMID: 29794080]
World Population Prospects UN. World Population Prospects 2019.
Nations within a nation: variations in epidemiological transition across the states of India, 1990-2016 in the Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet 2017; 390(10111): 2437-60.
[PMID: 29150201]
Misra A, Tandon N, Ebrahim S, et al. Diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease in South Asia: current status and future directions. BMJ 2017; 357: j1420.
[] [PMID: 28400361]
Zahid N, Meyer HE, Kumar BN, Claussen B, Hussain A. High levels of cardiovascular risk factors among pakistanis in norway compared to pakistanis in pakistan. J Obes 2011; 2011: 163749-9.
[] [PMID: 21773000]
Joshi P, Islam S, Pais P, et al. Risk factors for early myocardial infarction in South Asians compared with individuals in other countries. JAMA 2007; 297(3): 286-94.
[] [PMID: 17227980]
Anand SS, Yusuf S, Vuksan V, et al. Differences in risk factors, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular disease between ethnic groups in Canada: the Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups (SHARE). Lancet 2000; 356(9226): 279-84.
[] [PMID: 11071182]
Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. INTERHEART Study Investigators. Obesity and the risk of myocardial infarction in 27,000 participants from 52 countries: a case-control study. Lancet 2005; 366(9497): 1640-9.
[] [PMID: 16271645]
GHDx GHDE 2020.
Ahmed ST, Rehman H, Akeroyd JM, et al. Premature coronary heart disease in south asians: burden and determinants. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2018; 20(1): 6.
[] [PMID: 29374801]
Prabhakaran D, Jeemon P, Roy A. Cardiovascular diseases in India: current epidemiology and future directions. Circulation 2016; 133(16): 1605-20.
[] [PMID: 27142605]
Bhatnagar D, Anand IS, Durrington PN, et al. Coronary risk factors in people from the Indian subcontinent living in west London and their siblings in India. Lancet 1995; 345(8947): 405-9.
[] [PMID: 7853948]
Patel JV, Vyas A, Cruickshank JK, et al. Impact of migration on coronary heart disease risk factors: comparison of Gujaratis in Britain and their contemporaries in villages of origin in India. Atherosclerosis 2006; 185(2): 297-306.
[] [PMID: 16005463]
Gunarathne A, Patel JV, Kausar S, Gammon B, Hughes EA, Lip GY. Glycemic status underlies increased arterial stiffness and impaired endothelial function in migrant South Asian stroke survivors compared to European Caucasians: pathophysiological insights from the West Birmingham Stroke Project. Stroke 2009; 40(7): 2298-306.
[] [PMID: 19520993]
Kain K, Catto AJ, Grant PJ. Clustering of thrombotic factors with insulin resistance in South Asian patients with ischaemic stroke. Thromb Haemost 2002; 88(6): 950-3.
[PMID: 12529744]
Deepa R, Mohan V, Premanand C, et al. Accelerated platelet activation in Asian Indians with diabetes and coronary artery disease-The Chennai Urban Population Study (CUPS-13). J Assoc Physicians India 2006; 54: 704-8.
[PMID: 17212017]
Narne P, Ponnaluri KC, Singh S, Siraj M, Ishaq M. Relationship between NADPH oxidase p22phox C242T, PARP-1 Val762Ala polymorphisms, angiographically verified coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction in South Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thromb Res 2012; 130(5): e259-65.
[] [PMID: 23040216]
Saleheen D, Zaidi M, Rasheed A, et al. The Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study: a resource for the study of genetic, lifestyle and other determinants of myocardial infarction in South Asia. Eur J Epidemiol 2009; 24(6): 329-38.
[] [PMID: 19404752]
Chowdhury R, Alam DS, Fakir II, et al. Cardiology Research Group. The Bangladesh Risk of Acute Vascular Events (BRAVE) Study: objectives and design. Eur J Epidemiol 2015; 30(7): 577-87.
[] [PMID: 25930055]
Howson JMM, Zhao W, Barnes DR, et al. Fifteen new risk loci for coronary artery disease highlight arterial-wall-specific mechanisms. Nat Genet 2017; 49(7): 1113-9.
[] [PMID: 28530674]
WHO. Life course perspectives on coronary heart disease stroke and diabetes : key issues and implications for policy and research 2001.
Sharma D, Shastri S, Sharma P. Intrauterine growth restriction: antenatal and postnatal aspects. Clin Med Insights Pediatr 2016; 10: 67-83.
[] [PMID: 27441006]
Stein CE, Fall CH, Kumaran K, Osmond C, Cox V, Barker DJ. Fetal growth and coronary heart disease in south India. Lancet 1996; 348(9037): 1269-73.
[] [PMID: 8909379]
Chowdhury R, Narayan KM, Zabetian A, Raj S, Tabassum R. Genetic studies of type 2 diabetes in South Asians: a systematic overview. Curr Diabetes Rev 2014; 10(4): 258-74.
[] [PMID: 25001234]
Duong M, Rangarajan S, Zhang X, et al. Effects of bidi smoking on all-cause mortality and cardiorespiratory outcomes in men from south Asia: an observational community-based substudy of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (PURE). Lancet Glob Health 2017; 5(2): e168-76.
[] [PMID: 28104186]
Maddatu J, Anderson-Baucum E, Evans-Molina C. Smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Transl Res 2017; 184: 101-7.
[] [PMID: 28336465]
Savell E, Gilmore AB, Sims M, et al. The environmental profile of a community’s health: a cross-sectional study on tobacco marketing in 16 countries. Bull World Health Organ 2015; 93(12): 851-61G.
[] [PMID: 26668437]
Hosseinpoor AR, Parker LA, Tursan d�?(tm)Espaignet E, Chatterji S. Socioeconomic inequality in smoking in low-income and middle-income countries: results from the World Health Survey. PLoS One 2012; 7(8)
[] [PMID: 22952617]
Palipudi KM, Gupta PC, Sinha DN, Andes LJ, Asma S, McAfee T. GATS Collaborative Group. Social determinants of health and tobacco use in thirteen low and middle income countries: evidence from Global Adult Tobacco Survey. PLoS One 2012; 7(3)
[] [PMID: 22438937]
Gupta R, Gupta N, Khedar RS. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease in low and middle income countries. Indian Heart J 2013; 65(4): 369-77.
[] [PMID: 23992997]
Sinha DN, Suliankatchi RA, Gupta PC, et al. Global burden of all- cause and cause-specific mortality due to smokeless tobacco use: systematic review and meta-analysis. Tob Control 2018; 27(1): 35-42.
[] [PMID: 27903956]
Misra A, Khurana L, Isharwal S, Bhardwaj S. South Asian diets and insulin resistance. Br J Nutr 2009; 101(4): 465-73.
[] [PMID: 18842159]
Satija A, Hu FB, Bowen L, et al. Dietary patterns in India and their association with obesity and central obesity. Public Health Nutr 2015; 18(16): 3031-41.
[] [PMID: 25697609]
Safdar NF, Bertone-Johnson E, Cordeiro L, Jafar TH, Cohen NL. Dietary patterns of Pakistani adults and their associations with sociodemographic, anthropometric and life-style factors. J Nutr Sci 2014; 2: e42-2.
[] [PMID: 25191598]
Mohan V, Radhika G, Sathya RM, Tamil SR, Ganesan A, Sudha V. Dietary carbohydrates, glycaemic load, food groups and newly detected type 2 diabetes among urban Asian Indian population in Chennai, India (Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study 59). Br J Nutr 2009; 102(10): 1498-506.
[] [PMID: 19586573]
Ranasinghe CD, Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Misra A. Physical activity patterns among South-Asian adults: a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2013; 10: 116.
[] [PMID: 24119682]
Hills AP, Arena R, Khunti K, et al. Epidemiology and determinants of type 2 diabetes in south Asia. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2018; 6(12): 966-78.
[] [PMID: 30287102]
Hu FB. Sedentary lifestyle and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Lipids 2003; 38(2): 103-8.
[] [PMID: 12733740]
Yusuf S, Hawken S, Ounpuu S, et al. INTERHEART Study Investigators. Effect of potentially modifiable risk factors associated with myocardial infarction in 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study. Lancet 2004; 364(9438): 937-52.
[] [PMID: 15364185]
Misra A, Vikram NK. Insulin resistance syndrome (metabolic syndrome) and obesity in Asian Indians: evidence and implications. Nutrition 2004; 20(5): 482-91.
[] [PMID: 15105039]
Misra A, Khurana L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008; 93(11)(Suppl. 1): S9-S30.
[] [PMID: 18987276]
Misra A, Jayawardena R, Anoop S. Obesity in south Asia: phenotype, morbidities, and mitigation. Curr Obes Rep 2019; 8(1): 43-52.
[] [PMID: 30729382]
Chow CK, Naidu S, Raju K, et al. Significant lipid, adiposity and metabolic abnormalities amongst 4535 Indians from a developing region of rural Andhra Pradesh. Atherosclerosis 2008; 196(2): 943-52.
[] [PMID: 17466992]
Kahn BB, Flier JS. Obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 2000; 106(4): 473-81.
[] [PMID: 10953022]
Ye J. Mechanisms of insulin resistance in obesity. Front Med 2013; 7(1): 14-24.
[] [PMID: 23471659]
RodrA-guez-Hernandez H, Simental-MendA-a LE, RodrA-guez-RamA-rez G, Reyes-Romero MA. Obesity and inflammation: epidemiology, risk factors, and markers of inflammation. Int J Endocrinol 2013; 2013: 678159.
[] [PMID: 23690772]
Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza’ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y. Obesity and inflammation: the linking mechanism and the complications. Arch Med Sci 2017; 13(4): 851-63.
[] [PMID: 28721154]
Golia E, Limongelli G, Natale F, et al. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease: from pathogenesis to therapeutic target. Curr Atheroscler Rep 2014; 16(9): 435.
[] [PMID: 25037581]
Lopez-Candales A, Hernandez Burgos PM, Hernandez-Suarez DF, Harris D. Linking chronic inflammation with cardiovascular disease: from normal aging to the metabolic syndrome. J Nat Sci 2017; 3(4): 3.
[PMID: 28670620]
Rao G, Powell-Wiley TM, Ancheta I, et al. American heart association obesity committee of the council on lifestyle and cardiometabolic health. identification of obesity and cardiovascular risk in ethnically and racially diverse populations: a scientific statement from the american heart association. Circulation 2015; 132(5): 457-72.
[] [PMID: 26149446]
Consultation WHOE. WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004; 363(9403): 157-63.
[] [PMID: 14726171]
Stafoggia M, Cesaroni G, Peters A, et al. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of cerebrovascular events: results from 11 European cohorts within the ESCAPE project. Environ Health Perspect 2014; 122(9): 919-25.
[] [PMID: 24835336]
Shah AS, Lee KK, McAllister DA, et al. Short term exposure to air pollution and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2015; 350: h1295.
[] [PMID: 25810496]
Balti EV, Echouffo-Tcheugui JB, Yako YY, Kengne AP. Air pollution and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2014; 106(2): 161-72.
[] [PMID: 25262110]
He D, Wu S, Zhao H, et al. Association between particulate matter 2.5 and diabetes mellitus: A meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Diabetes Investig 2017; 8(5): 687-96.
[] [PMID: 28122165]
Cosselman KE, Navas-Acien A, Kaufman JD. Environmental factors in cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 2015; 12(11): 627-42.
[] [PMID: 26461967]
Bilen O, Kamal A, Virani SS. Lipoprotein abnormalities in South Asians and its association with cardiovascular disease: Current state and future directions. World J Cardiol 2016; 8(3): 247-57.
[] [PMID: 27022456]
Kanaya AM, Kandula N, Herrington D, et al. Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study: objectives, methods, and cohort description. Clin Cardiol 2013; 36(12): 713-20.
[] [PMID: 24194499]
Kanaya AM, Wassel CL, Mathur D, et al. Prevalence and correlates of diabetes in South asian indians in the United States: findings from the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis in South asians living in america study and the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2010; 8(2): 157-64.
[] [PMID: 19943798]
Sanghera DK, Hopkins R, Malone-Perez MW, et al. Targeted sequencing of candidate genes of dyslipidemia in Punjabi Sikhs: Population-specific rare variants in GCKR promote ectopic fat deposition. PLoS One 2019; 14(8)
[] [PMID: 31369557]
Robertson FW. The genetic component in coronary heart disease-a review. Genet Res 1981; 37(1): 1-16.
[] [PMID: 7009326]
Sing CF, Orr JD. Analysis of genetic and environmental sources of variation in serum cholesterol in Tecumseh, Michigan. IV. Separation of polygene from common environment effects. Am J Hum Genet 1978; 30(5): 491-504.
[PMID: 736039]
Sing CF, Schultz JS, Shreffler DC. The genetics of the Lp antigen. II. A family study and proposed models of genetic control. Ann Hum Genet 1974; 38(1): 47-56.
[] [PMID: 4460864]
Rissanen AM, Nikkilä EA. Coronary artery disease and its risk factors in families of young men with angina pectoris and in controls. Br Heart J 1977; 39(8): 875-83.
[] [PMID: 901682]
Sprecher DL, Hein MJ, Laskarzewski PM. Conjoint high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol across generations. Analysis of proband hypertriglyceridemia and lipid/lipoprotein disorders in first-degree family members. Circulation 1994; 90(3): 1177-84.
[] [PMID: 8087926]
Bandesh K, Prasad G, Giri AK, et al. INDICO. Genome-wide association study of blood lipids in Indians confirms universality of established variants. J Hum Genet 2019; 64(6): 573-87.
[] [PMID: 30911093]
Nagasaka R, Gagnon C, Swist E, et al. EPA and DHA status of south asian and white canadians living in the national capital region of Canada. Lipids 2014; 49(10): 1057-69.
[] [PMID: 25148923]
Karthikeyan G, Teo KK, Islam S, et al. Lipid profile, plasma apolipoproteins, and risk of a first myocardial infarction among Asians: an analysis from the INTERHEART Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009; 53(3): 244-53.
[] [PMID: 19147041]
Ahmad S, Shanmugasegaram S, Walker KL, Prince SA. Examining sedentary time as a risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases and their markers in South Asian adults: a systematic review. Int J Public Health 2017; 62(4): 503-15.
[] [PMID: 28299392]
Chow CK, McQuillan B, Raju PK, et al. Greater adverse effects of cholesterol and diabetes on carotid intima-media thickness in South Asian Indians: comparison of risk factor-IMT associations in two population-based surveys. Atherosclerosis 2008; 199(1): 116-22.
[] [PMID: 18083174]
Frank ATH, Zhao B, Jose PO, Azar KMJ, Fortmann SP, Palaniappan LP. Racial/ethnic differences in dyslipidemia patterns. Circulation 2014; 129(5): 570-9.
[] [PMID: 24192801]
Bhalodkar NC, Blum S, Rana T, et al. Comparison of levels of large and small high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Asian Indian men compared with Caucasian men in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Cardiol 2004; 94(12): 1561-3.
[] [PMID: 15589018]
Dodani S, Dong L, Guirgis FW, Reddy ST. Carotid intima media thickness and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in South Asian immigrants: could dysfunctional HDL be the missing link? Arch Med Sci 2014; 10(5): 870-9.
[] [PMID: 25395937]
Dodani S, Henkhaus R, Wick J, et al. Metabolic syndrome in South Asian immigrants: more than low HDL requiring aggressive management. Lipids Health Dis 2011; 10: 45.
[] [PMID: 21410987]
Superko HR, Enas EA, Kotha P, Bhat NK, Garrett B. High-density lipoprotein subclass distribution in individuals of Asian Indian descent: the National Asian Indian Heart Disease Project. Prev Cardiol 2005; 8(2): 81-6.
[] [PMID: 15860982]
Tsimikas S. A test in context: lipoprotein(a): diagnosis, prognosis, controversies, and emerging therapies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 69(6): 692-711.
[] [PMID: 28183512]
Saeed A, Virani SS. Lipoprotein(a) and cardiovascular disease: current state and future directions for an enigmatic lipoprotein. Front Biosci 2018; 23: 1099-112.
[] [PMID: 28930591]
Isser HS, Puri VK, Narain VS, Saran RK, Dwivedi SK, Singh S. Lipoprotein (a) and lipid levels in young patients with myocardial infarction and their first-degree relatives. Indian Heart J 2001; 53(4): 463-6.
[PMID: 11759936]
Anand SS, Enas EA, Pogue J, Haffner S, Pearson T, Yusuf S. Elevated lipoprotein(a) levels in South Asians in North America. Metabolism 1998; 47(2): 182-4.
[] [PMID: 9472967]
Gupta R, Vasisht S, Bahl VK, Wasir HS. Correlation of lipoprotein (a) to angiographically defined coronary artery disease in Indians. Int J Cardiol 1996; 57(3): 265-70.
[] [PMID: 9024915]
Gambhir JK, Kaur H, Gambhir DS, Prabhu KM. Lipoprotein(a) as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in patients below 40 years of age. Indian Heart J 2000; 52(4): 411-5.
[PMID: 11084781]
Chopra V, Vasisht S, Gulati S, Manchanda SC. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in angiographically defined coronary artery disease patients and healthy blood bank donors. Indian J Med Sci 2000; 54(7): 284-9.
[PMID: 11143848]
Palaniappan L, Anthony MN, Mahesh C, et al. Cardiovascular risk factors in ethnic minority women aged < or =30 years. Am J Cardiol 2002; 89(5): 524-9.
[] [PMID: 11867035]
ParA(c) G, Çaku A, McQueen M, et al. Lipoprotein(a) levels and the risk of myocardial infarction among 7 ethnic groups. Circulation 2019; 139(12): 1472-82.
[] [PMID: 30667276]
Saleheen D, Haycock PC, Zhao W, et al. Apolipoprotein(a) isoform size, lipoprotein(a) concentration, and coronary artery disease: a mendelian randomisation analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2017; 5(7): 524-33.
[] [PMID: 28408323]
Velmurugan K, Deepa R, Ravikumar R, et al. Relationship of lipoprotein(a) with intimal medial thickness of the carotid artery in Type 2 diabetic patients in south India. Diabet Med 2003; 20(6): 455-61.
[] [PMID: 12786679]
Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, et al. 2013 ACC/AHA guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol 2014; 63(25 Pt B): 2935-59.
[] [PMID: 24239921]
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol. Circulation 2018; 2018: Cir0000000000000625.
ClinRisk. QRISK®2 2017.
Brindle P, May M, Gill P, et al. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a web-based risk score for seven British black and minority ethnic groups. Heart 2006; 92(11): 1595-602.
[] [PMID: 16762981]
Cardiology ACo. ASCVD Risk Estimator Plus Calculator.
Kanaya AM, Kandula NR, Ewing SK, et al. Comparing coronary artery calcium among U.S. South Asians with four racial/ethnic groups: the MASALA and MESA studies. Atherosclerosis 2014; 234(1): 102-7.
[] [PMID: 24632509]
Kanaya AM, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, et al. Incidence and progression of coronary artery calcium in south asians compared with 4 race/ethnic groups. J Am Heart Assoc 2019; 8(2): e011053.
[] [PMID: 30630376]
Nasir K, McClelland RL, Blumenthal RS, et al. Coronary artery calcium in relation to initiation and continuation of cardiovascular preventive medications: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2010; 3(3): 228-35.
[] [PMID: 20371760]
Bigeh A, Shekar C, Gulati M. Sex differences in coronary artery calcium and long-term cv mortality. Curr Cardiol Rep 2020; 22(4): 21-1.
[] [PMID: 32052199]
Deedwania PC, Gupta M, Stein M, Ycas J, Gold A. IRIS Study Group. Comparison of rosuvastatin versus atorvastatin in South-Asian patients at risk of coronary heart disease (from the IRIS Trial). Am J Cardiol 2007; 99(11): 1538-43.
[] [PMID: 17531577]
Liao JK. Safety and efficacy of statins in Asians. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99(3): 410-4.
[] [PMID: 17261409]
Yusuf S, Bosch J, Dagenais G, et al. HOPE-3 investigators. Cholesterol lowering in intermediate-risk persons without cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 2016; 374(21): 2021-31.
[] [PMID: 27040132]
Kaul U, Varma J, Kahali D, et al. Post-marketing study of clinical experience of atorvastatin 80 mg vs 40 mg in Indian patients with acute coronary syndrome- a randomized, multi-centre study (CURE-ACS). J Assoc Physicians India 2013; 61(2): 97-101.
[PMID: 24471247]
Lee E, Ryan S, Birmingham B, et al. Rosuvastatin pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics in white and Asian subjects residing in the same environment. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2005; 78(4): 330-41.
[] [PMID: 16198652]
Poulter NR, Caulfield M, Feder G. Anglo-Scandinavian cardiac outcomes trial. Ethnic variations in response to a statin (EVIREST). J Hum Hypertens 2001; 15(Suppl. 1): S87-9.
[] [PMID: 11685920]
Chapman MJ, Ginsberg HN. European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: evidence and guidance for management. Eur Heart J 2011; 32(11): 1345-61.
[] [PMID: 21531743]
Madan M, Vira T, Rampakakis E, et al. A randomized trial assessing the effectiveness of ezetimibe in south asian canadians with coronary artery disease or diabetes: the infinity study. Adv Prev Med 2012; 2012: 103728.
[] [PMID: 23304534]
Stitziel NO. Human genetic insights into lipoproteins and risk of cardiometabolic disease. Curr Opin Lipidol 2017; 28(2): 113-9.
[] [PMID: 28059951]
Cannon CP, Blazing MA, Giugliano RP, et al. IMPROVE-IT investigators. Ezetimibe added to statin therapy after acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med 2015; 372(25): 2387-97.
[] [PMID: 26039521]
Ouchi Y, Sasaki J, Arai H, et al. Ezetimibe lipid-lowering trial on prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in 75 or older (ewtopia 75): a randomized, controlled trial. Circulation 2019; 140(12): 992-1003.
[] [PMID: 31434507]
Elam M, Lovato L, Ginsberg H. The ACCORD-Lipid study: implications for treatment of dyslipidemia in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Lipidol 2011; 6(1): 9-20.
[] [PMID: 26207146]
The FSI. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study: baseline characteristics and short-term effects of fenofibrate. Cardiovasc Diabetol 2005; 4: 13.
[] [PMID: 16111499]
Scott R, O'Brien R, Fulcher G, et al. Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study investigators. effects of fenofibrate treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in 9,795 individuals with type 2 diabetes and various components of the metabolic syndrome: the Fenofibrate Intervention And Event Lowering In Diabetes (field) study. Diabetes Care 2009; 32(3): 493-8.
[] [PMID: 18984774]
AMGEN. Amgen Announces Repatha® (Evolocumab) Significantly Reduced The Risk Of Cardiovascular Events In FOURIER Outcomes Study
Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech A, et al. Rationale and design of the further cardiovascular outcomes research with pcsk9 inhibition in subjects with elevated risk trial. Am Heart J 2016; 173: 94-101.
[] [PMID: 26920601]
Ferdinand KC, Jacobson TA, Koren A, Elassal J, Thompson D, Deedwania P. Alirocumab efficacy and safety by race and ethnicity: Analysis from 3 ODYSSEY phase 3A trials. J Clin Lipidol 2019; 13(4): 586-593.e5.
[] [PMID: 31331789]
Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. REDUCE-IT Investigators. Cardiovascular risk reduction with icosapent ethyl for hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med 2019; 380(1): 11-22.
[] [PMID: 30415628]
Bowman L, Mafham M, Wallendszus K, et al. ASCEND study collaborative group. effects of n-3 fatty acid supplements in diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2018; 379(16): 1540-50.
[] [PMID: 30146932]
Abdelhamid AS, Brown TJ, Brainard JS, et al. Omega-3 fatty acids for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; 11: CD003177.
[PMID: 30521670]
Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al. REDUCE-IT investigators. Effects of icosapent ethyl on totala ischemic events: from reduce-it. J Am Coll Cardiol 2019; 73(22): 2791-802.
[] [PMID: 30898607]
Mach F, Baigent C, Catapano AL, et al. ESC Scientific Document Group. 2019 ESC/EAS Guidelines for the management of dyslipidaemias: lipid modification to reduce cardiovascular risk. Eur Heart J 2020; 41(1): 111-88.
[] [PMID: 31504418]
Goff DC Jr, Lloyd-Jones DM, Bennett G, et al. American college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines. 2013 acc/aha guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk: a report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on practice guidelines. Circulation 2014; 129(25)(Suppl. 2): S49-73.
[] [PMID: 24222018]
Grundy SM, Stone NJ, Bailey AL, et al. 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the management of blood cholesterol: a report of the american college of cardiology/american heart association task force on clinical practice guidelines. Circulation 2019; 139(25): e1082-143.
[PMID: 30586774]
120. Joint committee for guideline revision. 2019 Chinese guideline for the mnagaement of dyslipidemia in adults. J Geriatr Cardiol 2018; 15(1): 1-29.
[PMID: 29434622]
Li YH, Ueng KC, Jeng JS, et al. Writing group of 2017 Taiwan lipid guidelines for high risk patients. 2017 taiwan lipid guidelines for high risk patients. J Formos Med Assoc 2017; 116(4): 217-48.
[] [PMID: 28242176]
Iyengar SS, Puri R, Narasingan SN, et al. Lipid Association of India (LAI) expert consensus statement on management of dyslipidaemia in Indians 2017: part 2. Clin Lipidol 2017; 12: 56-109.
Iyengar SSPR, Narasingan SN. Lipid association of india expert consensus statement on management of dyslipidemia in indians 2016: Part 1 - Executive summary. J Clin Prev Cardiol 2016; 5: 51-61.
Puri R, Mehta V, Duell PB, et al. Proposed low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals for secondary prevention and familial hypercholesterolemia in India with focus on PCSK9 inhibitor monoclonal antibodies: Expert consensus statement from Lipid Association of India. J Clin Lipidol 2020; 14(2): e1-e13.
[] [PMID: 32089456]
Nambi V, Bhatt DL. Primary prevention of atherosclerosis: time to take a selfie? J Am Coll Cardiol 2017; 70(24): 2992-4.
[] [PMID: 29241486]
Nishtar S. The NCDs Cooperative: a call to action. Lancet 2017; 390(10105): 1820-1.
[] [PMID: 28935161]
Ounpuu S, Negassa A, Yusuf S. INTER-HEART: A global study of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction. Am Heart J 2001; 141(5): 711-21.
[] [PMID: 11320357]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy