Metabolic diseases are the consequences of abnormal chemical reactions in the body leading to variation in the normal metabolic processes. These diseases have actually reached an epidemic stage around the globe. Among the several types of metabolic disorders, type II diabetes is quite serious and dependent on glucose levels in the blood. The major challenge is the continuous monitoring of blood glucose levels. Among the different blood sugar level diagnostic strategies, nanotechnology may offer several advantages over traditional systems owing to the better surface area of sensors, the improved catalytic property of electrodes, plus better handling. For this reason, different types of nanosensors (to measure blood glucose level) and nanomaterials (to improve glucose sensor function) have been investigated by various researchers. This work is an effort to discuss the role of nanosensors and the major advancements that have been utilized so far for the effective and reproducible diagnosis of blood glucose level, which may provide a better and effective diagnosis for type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, β-cells, insulin, glucagon, nanotechnology, glucose sensors, biosensors, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, continuous glucose monitoring, breath analysis, e-nose technology.