Generic placeholder image

Current Bioactive Compounds


ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Review Article

Ajuga L.: A Systematic Review on Chemical Composition, Phytopharmacological and Biological Potential

Author(s): Kirti Nagarkoti, Jeewanti Kanyal, Om Prakash*, Ravendra Kumar, D.S. Rawat and A.K. Pant

Volume 17, Issue 9, 2021

Published on: 01 January, 2021

Article ID: e010621189843 Pages: 27

DOI: 10.2174/1573407216999210101230234

Price: $65


Background: The Himalayan region has been reported as rich accumulation of natural wealth, particularly of aromatic and medicinal plants. Indian Ajuga species (Ajuga brachystemon, Ajuga integrifolia, Ajuga macrosperma and Ajuga parviflora) belonging to Lamiaceae family have been reported from different parts of Uttarakhand. Phytochemical studies revealed presence of various bioactive compounds including neo-clerodane diterpenoids, steroids, phytoecdysteroids, sphingolipids, triterpenoids, flavonoids, fatty acids, iridoids, triglycerides, withanolides, phenylethanoid glycosides and quinols. Modern pharmacological activities of Ajuga species including anti-inflammatory, anti plasmodial activity, anti-platelet activity, antioxidant activity, analgesic assay, anti diabetic activity, antifungal activity, insecticidal activity and cytotoxity have been published by various researchers.

Objective: The present study is aimed at exploring chemical composition, pharmacological and biological activities of Ajuga species as worked out by researchers and scientific community. Due to the excessive use of Ajuga species it needs to be conserved and requires important measures for its conservation.

Methods: The analysis of essential oils and plant extract has been reported through solvent extraction, steam distillation method, GC-MS analysis and HPLC.

Results: Literature survey revealed reports of Ajuga L. to be used against various ailments such as stomach-ache, dermatitis, malaria, snake-bite, ear-ache, arthritis, bleeding, wounds, asthma, pneumonia, respiratory problems, fever, dysentery, and joint pain.

Conclusion: The detailed description would be helpful in future studies. Recent biotechnological approaches have been reported useful to conserve A. bracteosa due to over exploitation for research purpose whereas A. brachystemon and A. macrosperma have been reported rarely in the wild.

Keywords: Ajuga, phytochemical, phytopharmacological, ethno medicinal uses, conservation status, biotechnological approaches.

Graphical Abstract
Plants of the World Online.. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.,
WCVP; World Checklist of Vascular Plants. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2020.
Roskov, Y.; Ower, G.; Orell, T.; Nicolson, D.; Bailly, N.; Kirk, P.M.; Bourgoin, T.; Dewalt, R.E.; Decock, W.; Nieukerken, E.V.; Zarucchi, J.; Penev, L. Species 2000   ITIS Catalogue of life, 2019 Annual checklist.,
The Plant List. 2013. Available from:
Israili, Z.H.; Lyoussi, B. Ethnopharmacology of the plants of genus Ajuga. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2009, 22(4), 425-462.
[PMID: 19783524]
Upadhyay, S.U.; Patel, V.B.; Patel, A.A.; Upadhyay, U.M.; Patel, N.M. Ajuga bracteosa: A Promising herb. Int. J. Pharma Sci., 2012, 3(3), 2085-2104.
Bouyahya, A.; El Omari, N.; Elmenyiy, N.; Guaouguaou, F.E.; Balahbib, A.; El-Shazly, M.; Chamkhi, I. Ethnomedicinal use, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Ajuga iva (L.,) schreb. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2020, 258
[] [PMID: 32387464]
Mamarasulov, B.; Davranov, K.; Jabborova, D. Phytochemical, pharmacological, and biological properties of Ajuga turkestanica (Rgl.) Brig (Lamiaceae). Ann. Phytomed., 2020, 9(1), 44-57.
Hassan, N.; Din, M.U.; Shuaib, M.; Hassan, F.U.; Zhu, Y.; Chen, Y.; Nisar, M.; Iqbal, I.; Zada, P.; Iqbal, A. Quantitative analysis of medicinal plants consumption in the highest mountainous region of Bahrain Valley, Northern Pakistan. Ukr. J. Ecol., 2019, 9(1), 35-49.
Singh, D.K.; Hajra, P.K. Floristic diversity.Changing perspectives of biodiversity status in the Himalayas.; Gujral, G.S.; Sharma, V., Eds.; British Council Division: New Delhi; Gujral, G.S.; Sharma, V., Eds.; British Council Division: New Delhi, 1996, pp. pp. 23-38.
Samant, S.S.; Dhar, U.; Palni, L.M.S. Medicinal plants of Indian Himalaya: diversity, distribution potential value. 1998, (13), 35-46.
Prakash, R. Traditional Uses of Medicinal Plants in Uttarakhand Himalayan Region. Sch. Acad. J. Biosci, 2014, 2(5), 345-353.
Joshi, B.C.; Joshi, R.K. The role of medicinal plants in livelihood improvement in uttarakhand. Int. J. Herb. Med, 2014, 1(6), 55-58.
Karthikeyan, S. A statistical analysis of flowering plants of India.Flora of India, Introductory Volume (Part II).; Singh, N.P.; Singh, D.K.; Hajra, P.K.; Sharma, B.D., Eds.; Botanical Survey of India: Calcutta ; Botanical Survey of India: Calcutta, 2000, pp. pp. 201-217.
Uniyal, B.P.; Sharma, J.R.; Choudhery, U.; Singh, D.K. Flowering plants of Uttarakhand (A Checklist).; Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh: Dehradun; , 2007, p. p. 404.
Chandra, K.; Nautiyal, B.P.; Nautiyal, M.C. Herbal based traditional medicinal knowledge of local inhabitants in Rudraprayag district of Uttarakhand, India. Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2013, 11, 99-313.
Kumar, A. Ethno-Botanical Diversity and conservation status of medicinal flora at high terrains of Garhwal (Uttarakhand) Himalaya, India: A case study in context to multifarious tourism growth and peri-urban encroachments. Int. Sch. Sci. Res. Innov., 2017, 11(5)
Giday, M.; Asfaw, Z.; Woldu, Z. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used by Sheko ethnic group of Ethiopia. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2010, 132(1), 75-85.
[] [PMID: 20674734]
Singh, K.J.; Thakur, A.K. Medicinal plants of the Shimla Hills, Himachal Pradesh: A Survey. Int. J. Herb. Med., 2014, 2(2), 118-127.
Gaur, R.D. Flora of district Garhwal North-West Himalaya (with ethnobotanical notes); Transmedia Publication: Srinagar.Garhwal:India; , 1999.
Haque, M.A.; Shaha, M.K.; Ahmed, S.U.; Akter, R.; Rahman, H.; Sujan, Chakravotry; Imran, A.H.M.N.; Islam, M.T.; Das, R.C.; Rahmatullah, M. Use of inorganic substances in folk medicinal formulations: a case study of a folk medicinal practitioner in Tangail district, Bangladesh. Am-Eurasian. J. Sustain. Agric., 2011, 5(4), 415-423.
Hossan, M.S.; Hanif, A.; Khan, M.; Bari, S.; Jahan, R.; Rahmatullah, M. Ethno botanical survey of the Tripura tribe of Bangladesh. Am.-. Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric, 2009, 3(2), 253-261.
Rawat, V.S. Medicinal Plants and sustainable livelihood in Pauri district of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India. Int. J. Bioassays, 2016, 5(6), 4589-4592.
Chowdhury, A.R.; Rahmatullah, M. Ethnobotanical study of wound healings plant among the folk medicinal practitioners of several districts in Bangladesh. Am.-. Eurasian J. Sustain. Agric., 2012, 6(4), 371-377.
Rahman, N.; Ahmad, M.; Riaz, M.; Mehjabeen, ; Jahan, N.; Ahmad, R. Phytochemical, antimicrobial, insecticidal and brine shrimp lethality bioassay of the crude methanolic extract of Ajuga parviflora Benth. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2013, 26(4), 751-756.
[PMID: 23811453]
Gandhi, S.G.; Mahajan, V.; Bedi, Y.S. Changing trends in biotechnology of secondary metabolism in medicinal and aromatic plants. Planta, 2015, 241(2), 303-317.
[] [PMID: 25549846]
Rasikari, H. Phytochemistry and anthropod bioactivity of Australian Lamiacea.. PhD thesis, Southern Cross University: Lismore, NSW, 2007.
Mosaddegh, M.; Naghibi, F.; Moazzeni, H.; Pirani, A.; Esmaeili, S. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal remedies traditionally used in Kohghiluyeh va Boyer Ahmad province of Iran. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 141(1), 80-95.
[] [PMID: 22366675]
Martínez, E.J.; Zengin, G.; Barrales, P.O.; Aumeeruddy, M.Z.; Locatelli, M.; Mollica, A.; Mahomoodally, M.F. Characterization of the phytochemical profiles and biological activities of Ajuga chamaepitys subsp. chia var. chia and Ajuga bombycina by high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MSn). Anal. Lett., 2018, 52(5), 852-868.
Bhatt, V.P.; Negi, G.C.S. Ethnomedicinal plant resources of Jaunsari tribe of Garhwal Himalaya, Uttaranchal. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2006, 5(3), 331-335.
Kumari, P.; Samant, S.S.; Puri, S. Diversity, distribution, indigenous uses and conservation of medicinal plants in central Himachal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya. J. Med. Plants stud., 2018, 6(5), 45-68.
Ehsani, A.; Esfahan, E.Z. khalifehzadeh, R. Habitat conditiond of the most important medicinal plants from Lamiacea family in Mazandaran province. J. Med. Plants By-Prod., 2015, 1, 57-66.
Jakovljevic, D.Z.; Vasic, S.M.; Stankovic, M.S.; Comic, L.R.; Topuzovic, M.D. Secondary metabolite content and in vitro biological effects of Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreb. Subsp. Chamaepitys. Arch. Biol. Sci., 2015, 67(4), 1195-1202.
Khanavi, M.; Davoodipoor, A.M.; Sadati, S.N.; Ardekani, M.R.S.; Sharifzadeh, M. Antinociceptive effect of some extracts from Ajuga chamaecistus Ging. ssp. tomentella (Boiss.) Rech. f. aerial parts. Daru, 2014, 22(1), 56.
[] [PMID: 25022284]
Sadati, N.; Jenett-Siems, K.; Siems, K.; Ardekani, M.R.; Hadjiakhoondi, A.; Akbarzadeh, T.; Ostad, S.N.; Khanavi, M. Major constituents and cytotoxic effects of Ajuga chamaecistus ssp. tomentella. Z. Natforsch. C J. Biosci., 2012, 67(5-6), 275-281.
[] [PMID: 22888532]
Ozturk, M.; Altay, V.; Gonenc, T.M. Herbal from the high mountains in the east mediterranian. Drug discovery from herbs. Suresh, Bhojraj; Tijen, Talas-Ogras; Shamiem, Adam; Subba Rao, V. Madhunapantula, Eds ; Centre for Science and technology of the non-aligned and other developing countries: NAM S T Centre; , 2017, pp. pp. 328-367.
Sarac, N.; Ugur, A. Antimicrobial activities and usage in folkloric medicine of some Lamiacea growing in Mugla, Turkey, Eurasis. J. Biosci., 2007, 4, 28-37.
Tumen, G.; Malyer, H.; Baser, K.H.C.; Oz Aydin, S. In: Plants used in Anatolia for wound healing. Proceedings of the IVth International Congress of Ethnobotany, 2005, , pp. pp. 217-221.
Altundag, F.; Ozturk, M. Ethnomedicinal studies on the plant resources of east Anatolia, Turkey. Procedia Soc. Behav. Sci., 2011, 19, 756-777.
Fakir, H.; Korkmaz, M.; Icel, B. Medicinal plants traditionally used for pain alleviation in Antalya Province, Italy. Stud. Ethno-Med., 2016, 10(3), 314-324.
Turkoglu, S.; Turkoglu, I.; Kahyaoglu, M.; Celik, S. Determination of antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Turkish endemic Ajuga chamaepitys (L.) Schreber subsp. euphratica P.H.Davis (Lamiaceae). J. Med. Plants Res., 2010, 4(13), 1260-1268.
Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Motamed, S.M.; Ghorbani, A. Labiatae family in folk Medicine in Iran: From Ethnobotany to pharmacology. Iran. J. Pharm. Res., 2005, 2, 63-79.
Khalil, E.A.; Afifi, F.U.; Al-Hussaini, M. Evaluation of the wound healing effect of some Jordanian traditional medicinal plants formulated in Pluronic F127 using mice (Mus musculus). J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 109(1), 104-112.
[] [PMID: 16920296]
Guo, P.; Li, Y.; Xu, J.; Guo, Y.; Jin, D.Q.; Gao, J.; Hou, W.; Zhang, T. neo-Clerodane diterpenes from Ajuga ciliata Bunge and their neuroprotective activities. Fitoterapia, 2011, 82(7), 1123-1127.
[] [PMID: 21807075]
Guo, P.; Li, Y.; Xu, J.; Liu, C.; Ma, Y.; Guo, Y. Bioactive neo-clerodane diterpenoids from the whole plants of Ajuga ciliata Bunge. J. Nat. Prod., 2011, 74(7), 1575-1583.
[] [PMID: 21682262]
Guo, P.; Li, Y.; Jing, D.; Xu, J.; He, Y.; Zhang, L.; Guo, Y. neo-clerodane diterpenes from Ajuga ciliata and their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production. Phytochem. Lett., 2012, 5, 563-566.
Karami, A. Essential oil composition of Ajuga comata Stapf. from Southern Zagros, Iran. Nat. Prod. Res., 2017, 31(3), 359-361.
[] [PMID: 27653644]
Ni, B.; Dong, X.; Fu, J.; Yin, X.; Lin, L.; Xia, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Xue, D.; Yang, C.; Ni, J. Phytochemical and biological properties of Ajuga decumbens (Labiatea): A Review. Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 2015, 14(8), 1525-1536.
Wen, B.; He, R.; Li, P.; Xu, Q.; Lu, Y.; Peng, B.; Li, J. Pharmacokinetics of 8-O-acetylharpagide and harpagide after oral administration of Ajuga decumbens Thunb extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2013, 147(2), 503-508.
[] [PMID: 23545457]
Wang, A.G.; He, S.; Feng, X.Z. Studies on the chemical constituents of Ajuga forrestii Diels. Chin. Herb. Med., 1993, 24, 292-319.
Wu, Z.Y.; Li, X.W. Flora of China.; Science Press: Beijing, China,; , 2005, pp. pp. 72-73.
Toiu, A.; Viase, L.; Arsene, A.L.; Vodnar, D.C.; Oniga, I. LC/UV/MS Profile of polyphenols, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of Ajuga genevensis L. extracts. Farmacia, 2016, 64, 53-57.
Bondì, M.L.; Al-Hillo, M.R.; Lamara, K.; Ladjel, S.; Bruno, M.; Piozzi, F.; Simmonds, M.S. Occurrence of the antifeedant 14,15-dihydroajugapitin in the aerial parts of Ajuga iva from Algeria. Biochem. Syst. Ecol., 2000, 28(10), 1023-1025.
[] [PMID: 10996266]
Beghalia, M.; Ghalem, S.; Allali, H.; Belouatek, A.; Marouf, A. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth using Algerian medicinal plants. J. Med. Plants Res., 2008, 2(3), 66-70.
Vardhana, R. Direct uses of medicinal plants and their identification.Published by Sarup & Son; , 2008.
Toiu, A.; Mocan, A.; Vlase, L.; Pârvu, A.E.; Vodnar, D.C.; Gheldiu, A.M.; Moldovan, C.; Oniga, I. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant, Antimicrobial and in Vivo Anti-inflammatory Activity of Traditionally Used Romanian Ajuga laxmannii (Murray) Benth. (“Nobleman’s Beard” - Barba Împăratului). Front. Pharmacol., 2018, 9(7), 7.
[] [PMID: 29551972]
Kidane, B.; van Andel, T.; van der Maesen, L.J.; Asfaw, Z. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2014, 10, 46.
[] [PMID: 24898079]
Wang, Y.C.; Yang, Y.Y.; Chi, D.F. Transcriptome analysis of abscisic acid induced 20E regulation in suspension Ajuga lobata cells. 3 Biotech, 2018, 8(8), 320.
[] [PMID: 30034984]
Shang, X.; Tao, C.; Miao, X.; Wang, D.; Tangmuke, ; Dawa, ; Wang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Pan, H. Ethno-veterinary survey of medicinal plants in Ruoergai region, Sichuan province, China. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2012, 142(2), 390-400.
[] [PMID: 22634202]
Castro, A.; Coll, J.; Tandrón, Y.A.; Pant, A.K.; Mathela, C.S. Phytoecdysteroids from Ajuga macrosperma var. breviflora roots. J. Nat. Prod., 2008, 71(7), 1294-1296.
[] [PMID: 18529078]
Liao, S.C. M.D.; Chiu, T.F.M.D.; Chen, J.C. M.D.; Lin, C.C. M.D. Ajuga nipponensis Makino Poisoning. Clin. Toxicol., 2005, 43, 583-585.
Moteetee, A.; Wyk, B.E.V. The Medical ethnobotany of Lesotho: a review. Bothalia, 2011, 41(1), 209-228.
Gunes, F.; Ozhatay, N. An ethnobotanical study from Kars (Eastern) Turkey. Biodivers. Conserv., 2011, 4(1), 30-41.
Zhang, H.; Ren, Q.C.; Ren, Y.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, F.Y.Y.; Zhao, W.J.; Tan, Y.Z. Ajugadecumin A from Ajuga ovalifolia var. calantha exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 murine macrophages and animal. Pharm. Biol., 2018, 56(1), 649-657.
[] [PMID: 31070535]
Ma, Y.; Liu, D.; Cheng, H.; Bussmann, R.W.; He, H.; Guo, Z.; Liu, B. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Miao people in Jijiezi, Yunnan, China. Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2019, 18(26), 1-14.
Kumari, R.Amit; Kumar, P.; Ahmed, R. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of Ajuga parviflora in diabetic rats. J. Drug Deliv. Ther., 2019, 9(4), 112-115.
Park, H.Y.; Kim, D.H.; Sivanesan, I. Micropropagation of Ajuga species: a mini review. Biotechnol. Lett., 2017, 39(9), 1291-1298.
[] [PMID: 28597370]
Alan, Y.; Savci, A.; Kocpinar, E.F.; Kursat, M.; Topdemir, S.; Karatas, M.; Çakmak, B. Antimicrobial, antioxidant and DNA protective effects and phenolic content of Lallementia canescens (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey. and Lallementia peltata (L.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey. Biological diver. Conserv., 2019, 12(3), 78-88.
Callebaut, A.; Hendrickx, G.; Voets, A.M.; Motte, J.C. Anthocyanins in cell cultures of Ajuga reptans. Phytochemistry, 1990, 29, 2153-2158.
Toiu, A.; Vlase, L.; Gheldiu, A.M.; Vodnar, D.; Oniga, I. Evaluation of the antioxidant and antibacterial potential of bioactive compounds from Ajuga Reptans extracts. Farmacia, 2017, 65, 351-355.
Thomas, S.C. Li. Taiwanese native medicinal plants. Phytopharmacol. Ther. val.Taylor & Francis: London, New York; , 2006, p. p. 2.
Frezza, C.; Venditti, A.; Di Cecco, M.; Ciaschetti, G.; Serafini, M.; Bianco, A. Iridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga tenorei, an endemic Italian species. Nat. Prod. Res., 2017, 31(2), 218-223.
[] [PMID: 27492580]
Abdukadirov, I.T.; Khodzhaeva, M.A.; Turakhozhaev, M.T.; Mamatkhanov, A.T. carbohydrates from Ajuga turkestanica. Chem. Nat. Compd., 2004, 40, 85-86.
Singh, G.; Rawat, G.S. Ethnomedicinal Survey of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary in Western Himalaya, India. Indian J. Fund. Appl. Life Sci., 2011, 1(1), 35-46.
Malik, Z.A.; Bhat, J.A.; Ballabha, R.; Bussmann, R.W.; Bhatt, A.B. Ethnomedicinal plants traditionally used in health care practices by inhabitants of Western Himalaya. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2015, 172, 133-144.
[] [PMID: 26087233]
Gedif, T.; Hahn, H.J. Treatment of malaria in Ethiopian folk medicine. Trop. Doct., 2002, 32(4), 206-209.
[] [PMID: 12405298]
Kumar, M.; Bussmann, R.W.; Joshi, M.; Kumar, P. Ethnomedicinal uses of plants close to rural habitation in Garhwal Himalaya, India. J. Med. Plants Res., 2011, 5(11), 2252-2260.
Upadhyay, A.K.; Kumar, K. Reverse pharmacological correlations of lesser known herbs potentially used as folk medicine by jaunsari tribe. J. Pharm. Res., 2018, 7(3), 37-42.
Tuasha, N.; Petros, B.; Asfaw, Z. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers to treat malignancies and other human ailments in Dalle District, Sidama Zone, Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2018, 14(1), 15.
[] [PMID: 29444684]
Mukungu, N.; Abuga, K.; Okalebo, F.; Ingwela, R.; Mwangi, J. Medicinal plants used for management of malaria among the Luhya community of Kakamega East sub-County, Kenya. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2016, 194, 98-107.
[] [PMID: 27586821]
Abebe, F.B.; Asfaw, M.M.; Tolossa, T.T. Medicinal plant species used to treat Tonsillitis in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review. J. Plant Stud., 2020, 9(1), 1-9.
Giday, M.; Asfaw, Z.; Woldu, Z.; Teklehaymanot, T. Medicinal plant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group of Ethiopia: an ethnobotanical investigation. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2009, 5, 34.
[] [PMID: 19912633]
Getahun, A. Some common medicinal and poisonous plants used in Ethiopian folk medicine. Registrated in the data bank prelude: VG07   HG07, 1976.
Khan, W.M.; Shah, S.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Akhtar, N. Evaluation of indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Tall Dardyal Hills, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. J. Herb. Med., 2020, 20
Mujtaba Shah, G.; Abbasi, A.M.; Khan, N.; Guo, X.; Ajab Khan, M.; Hussain, M.; Bibi, S.; Nazir, A.; Ahmad Tahir, A. Traditional uses of medicinal plants against malarial disease by the tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2014, 155(1), 450-462.
[] [PMID: 24892831]
Parvez, N.; Yadav, S. Ethno pharmacology of single herbal preparations of medicinal plants in Asendabo district, Jimma, Ethiopia. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2010, 9(4), 724-729.
Mesfin, F.; Seta, T.; Assefa, A. An Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Amaro Woreda, Ethiopia. Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2014, 12, 341-354.
Marpa, S.; Samant, S.S.; Tewari, A.; Paul, S. Diversity and indigenous uses of plants in Naina Devi Sacred Shrine Rewalsar, Himanchal Pradesh, North Western Himalaya, India. Int. J. Chem. Studies, 2020, 8(2), 1265-1276.
Teklay, A.; Abera, B.; Giday, M. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2013, 9(1), 65.
[] [PMID: 24011232]
Hishe, M.; Asfaw, Z. Review on Ethnobotanical studies on Traditional medicine plants used to treat livestock and human ailments in Tigray region, Ethiopia. Ad. J. Bio. Sci. Res., 2015, 3(2), 8-36.
Ahmed, M.J.; Akhtar, T. Indigenous knowledge of the use of medicinal plants in Bheri, Muzaffarabad, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. Eur. J. Integr. Med., 2016, 8(4), 560-569.
Kumar, K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Manhas, R.K.; Bhatia, H. Ethnomedicinal plants of Shankaracharya Hill, Srinagar, J&K, India. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2015, 170, 255-274.
[] [PMID: 26008867]
Bekele, D.; Asfaw, Z.; Petros, B.; Tekie, H. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for protection against insect bite and for the treatment of livestock health problems in rural areas of Akaki District, Eastern Shewa, Ethiopia. Topclass J. Herbal Med., 2012, 1(2), 40-52.
Kefalew, A.; Asfaw, Z.; Kelbessa, E. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants in Ada’a District, East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. J. Ethnobiol. Ethnomed., 2015, 11, 25.
[] [PMID: 25889311]
Sher, H.; Aldosari, A.; Ali, A.; de Boer, H.J. Indigenous knowledge of folk medicines among tribal minorities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, northwestern Pakistan. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2015, 166, 157-167.
[] [PMID: 25792019]
Tekle, Y. An ethno-veterinary botanical survey of medicinal plants in Kochore district of Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPRs), Ethiopia. J. Sci. Innov. Res., 2014, 3(4), 433-445.
Tali, B.A.; Ganie, A.H.; Nawchoo, I.A. Conservation status of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth: An important medicinal plant species of Kashmir Himalaya. Int. J. Ecol. Ecosol., 2016, 3(1), 1-6.
Tiwari, J.K.; Ballabha, R.; Tiwari, P. Diversity and Present status of medicinal plants in and around Srinagar Hydroelectric power project in Garhwal Himalaya, India: Needs for conservation. Researcher, 2010, 2(2), 50-60.
Hussain, M.; Bibi, Y.; Raja, N.I.; Iqbal, M.; Aslam, S.; Tahir, N.; Imran, M.; Iftikhar, A. A review of therapeutic potential of Ajuga bracteosa: A critically endangered plant from Himalaya. J. Coast. Life Med., 2016, 4(11), 918-924.
Singh, A.; Samant, S.S. Conservation prioritization of habitats and forest communities in the Lahaul valley of proposed cold desert biosphere reserve, north western Himalaya, India. Appl. Ecol. Environ. Res., 2010, 8(2), 101-117.
Saeed, S.; Ali, H.; Khan, T.; Kayani, W.; Khan, M.A. Impacts of methyl jasmonate and phenyl acetic acid on biomass accumulation and antioxidant potential in adventitious roots of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth., a high valued endangered medicinal plant. Physiol. Mol. Biol. Plants, 2017, 23(1), 229-237.
[] [PMID: 28250598]
Tynsong, H.; Tiwari, B.K.; Lynser, M.B. Medicinal plants of MeghalayaNewsletter of MAPPA/ICIMOD, NMPB   MPCN..; Dr. K., Haridasan, Ed.; India; , 2004, pp. pp. 7-10.
Chettri, N.; Shakya, B.; Sharma, E. Biodiversity conservation in the Kangchenjunga Landscape.Int. Ctr. Integ. Mt. Devt.ICIMOD; , 2008, pp. pp. 1-185.
Abdullah, M.R.; Haque, M.E.; Rahman, M.M.; Fakir, M.S.A. Diversity of Traditional Leafy Vegetables in Two Villages of ‘Kaptai’ Reserve Forest, ‘Rangamati’, Bangladesh. J. Agro Ecol. Nat. Res. Mngmt., 2017, 4(3), 203-207.
eFloras. 2008. Available from:
Jyoti, Samant S.S.; Kishor, K.; Upreti, B.M.; Bharti, M.; Bohra, N.; Sharma, P.; Tewari, L.M. Diversity, distribution, indigenous uses and conservation prioritization of the economically important floristic diversity in Nadaun Block of Hamirpur district, Himachal Pradesh. Int. J. Biodivers. Conserv., 2014, 6(7), 522-540.
Kumar, A.; Mitra, M.; Singh, G.; Rawat, G.S. An inventory of the flora of Binog Wildlife Sanctuary, Musoorie, Garhwal, Himalaya. Indian J. Fund. Appl. Life Sci., 2012, 2(1), 281-299.
Khan, M.; Hussain, F.; Musharaf, S. Floristic Composition and Biological characteristics of the vegetation of Sheikh Maltoon Town District Mardan, Pakistan. Annu. Rev. Res. Bio., 2013, 3(1), 31-41.
Sidhu, M.C.; Thakur, S. Medicinal plant remedies for dermatological problems. Curr. Biot., 2017, 8, 23-33.
Barkatullah, Ibrar, M. Plants profiles of malakand pass Hills, District Malakand, Pakistan. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2011, 10(73), 16521-16535.
Khan, M.; Musharaf, S. Ethnobotanical studies on plant resources of Sheikh Maltoon, District Mardan, Pakistan. Med. Plant Res., 2014, 4(5), 35-45.
Rana, C.S.; Ballabha, R.; Tewari, J.K.; Dangwal, L.R. An ethnobotanical study of plant resources in the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (A World Heritage Site), Uttarakhand, India. The J. Ethnobio. Trad. Med. Photon, 2013, 120, 591-601.
Nautiyal, S.; Maikhuri, R.K.; Rao, K.S.; Saxena, K.G. Medicinal plant resources in Nanda Devi biosphere reserve in the Central Himalayas. J. Herbs. Spices Med. Plants, 2001, 8(4), 47-64.
Bisht, S.; Adhikari, B.S. Ethnobotanical study of Traditional medicinal plants used by Banraji community in Uttarakhand, West Himalaya. J. Ethnobiol. Trad. Med., 2018, 129, 1426-1441.
Rana, C.S.; Sharma, A.; Dangwal, L.R.; Tiwari, J.K.; Kumar, N. Ethnopharmacology of some important medicinal plants of Nanda Devi National Park, Uttarakhand, India. Nat. Sci., 2010, 8(11), 11-16.
Lone, P.A.; Bhardawaz, A.K. Ethnomedicinal uses of certain locally available plants of Bandipora district of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants, 2013, 3(4), 470-485.
Singh, A.P.; Kumar, M.; Nagar, B.; Pala, N.A.; Bussmann, R.W. Ethnomedicinal uses of plant resources in Kirti Nagar Block of Tehri Garhwal in Western Himalaya. Ethnobot. Res. Appl., 2019, 18(14), 1-11.
Ahmad, I.; Ibrar, M. Ethnobotanical study of Tehsil Kabal, Swat district, KPK, Pakistan. J. Bot., 2011, 1-10.
Hussain, F.; Islam, M.; Zaman, A. Ethno botanical profile of plants of Shawar valley, district Swat, Pakistan. Int. J. Biol. Biotechnol., 2006, 3(2), 301-307.
Vikram, S.R. Indigenous uses of medicinal and edible plants of Nanda Devi biosphere reserve-a review based on previous studies. Glob. J. Res. Med. Plants Indig. Med., 2014, 3(2), 57-66.
Khan, Z.S.; Khuroo, A.A.; Dar, G.H. Ethno medicinal Survey of Uri, Kashmir Himalaya. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl., 2004, 3(4), 351-357.
Ahmad, N.; Anwar, S.; Fazal, H.; Abbasi, B.H. Medicinal plants used in indigenous therapy by people of Madyan valley in district Swat, Pakistan. Int. J. Med. Ar. Plants, 2013, 3(1), 47-54.
Joshi, B.; Tyagi, V. Traditional Knowledge and Utilization of medicinal plants of Himalayan Region. Nat. Sci., 2011, 9(5), 1-6.
Pant, G.C. Indigenous medicinal practices of rural communities in respect use of the non-timber forest products in Indian central Himalaya. J. Med. Plant Stud., 2015, 3(2)
Khan, M.T.; Hashim, S.; Ayub, S.; Jan, A.; Marwat, K.B. A case study of ethnobotany and biodiversity conservation from Tehsil Barawal. J. Bot., 2015, 47(SI), 7-13.
Abidullah, S.; Rauf, A.; Khan, S.W.Mehnaz; Bibi, A.; Rauf, A.; Fazal, S. Traditional uses of medicinal plants in their conservation in Charmang Village, Bajaur, KP, Pakistan. Int. J. Bioorg. Chem., 2019, 4(1), 70-83.
Pant, S.; Samant, S.S. Ethnobotanical observations in the mornaula reserve forest of Kumoun, West Himalaya, India. Ethnobot. Leaflets, 2010, 14, 193-217.
Bhakuni, R.S.; Shukla, Y.N.; Thakur, R.S. Chemical constituents of Ajuga bracteosa. Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 1987, 49, 225-226.
Ley, S.V.; Simpkins, N.S.; Whittle, A.J. The total synthesis of the clerodane diterpene insect Antifeedant Ajugarin-I. J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun., 1983, 503-505.
Cakir, A.; Mavi, A.; Kazaz, C.; Yildirim, A.; Kufrevioglu, O.I. Antioxidant activities of the extracts and components of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale. Turk. J. Chem., 2006, 30, 483-494.
Verma, V.H.K.; Mahmood, U.; Singh, B. Clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Nat. Prod. Lett., 2002, 16(4), 255-259.
[] [PMID: 12168761]
Singh, N.; Mahmood, U.; Kaul, V.K.; Jirovetz, L. A new phthalic acid ester from Ajuga bracteosa. Nat. Prod. Res., 2006, 20(6), 593-597.
[] [PMID: 16835093]
Riaz, N.; Sarfraz, A. Nawaz; Mukhtar, N.; Malik, A.; Afza, N.; Ali, S.; Ullah, S.; Muhammad, P.; Choudhary, M.I. Isolation and Enzyme-Inhibiton studies of the Chemical constituents from Ajuga bracteosa. Chem. Biodivers., 2007, 4, 72-83.
[] [PMID: 17256736]
Castro, A.; Coll, J.; Arfan, M. neo-Clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga bracteosa. J. Nat. Prod., 2011, 74(5), 1036-1041.
[] [PMID: 21539300]
Ganaie, H.A.; Ali, M.N.; Ganai, B.A.; Kaur, J.; Ahmad, M. GC-MS analysis and evaluation of mutagenic and antimutagenic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex. Benth: An endemic medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalaya, India. J. Clin. Toxicol., 2016, 6(2)
Riaz, N.; Malik, A.; Nawaz, S.A.; Muhammad, P.; Choudhary, M.I.; Choudhary, M.I. Aziz-ur-Rehman. Cholinesterase-inhibiting withanolides from Ajuga bracteosa. Chem. Biodivers., 2004, 1(9), 1289-1295.
[] [PMID: 17191906]
Kayani, W.K.; Hasan, H.; Mirza, B. Advances in genetic engineering of Ajuga species. Biotech. App. Med. Ar. plants, 2018, 27, 599-629.
Ali, T.; Shah, Z.; Bashir, R. A review on phytochemical and ethnopharmacological studies of Ajuga bracteosa Wall Ex. Benth. J. Drug Dlvr. Ther., 2019, 9(2), 489-492.
Kayani, W.K.; Rani, R.; Ihsan-ul-Haq, ; Mirza, B. Seasonal and geographical impact on the morphology and 20-hydroxyecdysone content in different tissue types of wild Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. Steroids, 2014, 87(9), 12-20.
[] [PMID: 24819991]
Shen, X.; Isogai, A.; Furihata, K.; Sun, H.; Suzuki, A. Two neo- clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga macrosperma. Phytochemistry, 1993, 33(4), 887-889.
Shien, X.; Isogai, A.; Furihata, K.; Sun, H. Suzuki, A neo- clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga macrosperma and Ajuga pantantha. Phytochemistry, 1993, 34(4), 1091-1094.
Castro, A.; Coll, J.; Pant, A.K.; Pakrash, O. neo-Clerodane Diterpenoids from Ajuga macrosperma var. breviflora. Nat. Prod. Commun., 2015, 10(6), 857-860.
[] [PMID: 26197499]
Maridass, M.; Ramesh, U. Investigation of Phytochemical constituents from Eulophia epidendraea. Int. J. Biol. Tech., 2010, 1(1), 1-7.
Vanden Berghe, W.; Sabbe, L.; Kaileh, M.; Haegeman, G.; Heyninck, K. Molecular insight in the multifunctional activities of Withaferin A. Biochem. Pharmacol., 2012, 84(10), 1282-1291.
[] [PMID: 22981382]
Beauchamp, S.P.; Bothni, A.T.; Caselles, M.C.; Dev, V.; Hope, H.; Larter, M.; Lee, G.; Mathela, C.S.; Melkani, A.B.; Millar, P.D.; Miyatake, M.; Pant, A.K.; Raffel, R.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Wyatt, D. Neo-clerodane diterpenoids from Ajuga parviflora. Phytochemistry, 1996, 43(4), 827-834.
Chen, L.X.; He, H.; Qiu, F. Natural withanolides: an overview. Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28(4), 705-740.
[] [PMID: 21344104]
Khan, P.M.; Malik, A.; Ahmad, S.; Nawaz, H.R. Withanolides from Ajuga parviflora. J. Nat. Prod., 1999, 62(9), 1290-1292.
[] [PMID: 10514315]
Khan, P.M.; Nawaz, H.R.; Ahmed, S.; Malik, A. Ajugins C and D: New Withanolides from Ajuga parviflora. Helv. Chim. Acta, 1999, 82(9), 1423-1426.
Nawaz, H.R.; Malik, A.; Khan, P.M.; Ahmed, S. Ajugin E and F: Two withanolides from Ajuga parviflora. Phytochemistry, 1999, 52, 1357-1360.
Nawaz, H.R.; Riaz, M.; Malik, A.; Khan, P.M.; Ullah, N. Withanolides and alkaloid from Ajuga parviflora. J. Chem. Soc. Pak., 2000, 22(2), 138-141.
Wrobel, J.T. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The alkaloids, 1985, 26, 327-382.
Misico, R.I.; Nicotra, V.E.; Oberti, J.C.; Barboza, G.; Gil, R.R.; Burton, G. Withanolides and related steroids. Prog. Chem. Org. Nat. Prod., 2011, 94, 127-229.
[PMID: 21833839]
Muhammad, P.; Ahmad, S.; Nawaz, H.R.; Ullah, N.; Malik, A. New acetylated quinols from Ajuga parviflora. Fitoterapia, 1999, 70, 229-232.
Akbar, E.; Nawaz, H.R.; Malik, A. Dihydroquinol and Quinol Derivatives from Ajuga parviflora. Z. Naturforsch, 2001, 56b, 842-846.
Hussain, J.; Begum, N.; Hussain, H.; Khan, F.U.; Rehman, N.U.; Al-Harrasi, A.; Ali, L. Ajuganane: a new phenolic compound from Ajuga bracteosa. Nat. Prod. Commun., 2012, 7(5), 615-616.
[] [PMID: 22799090]
Singh, P.; Prakash, O.; Pant, A.K. Essential oil composition of Ajuga parviflora Benth. growing in western himalayan region of Uttarakhand (India). J Essent Oil Bear Pl, 2015, 18(3), 697-701.
Rehman, N.; Begum, N.; Ali, L.; Harrasi, A.A.; Abbas, G.; Ahmadi, S.; Khan, A.L.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Hussain, J. Lipid peroxidation, antiglycation, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, antioxidant, antiplatelet and antimicrobial activities of Ajuga bracteosa against various pathogens. Pak. J. Bot., 2015, 47(3), 1195-1197.
Chandel, S.; Bagai, U. Antiplasmodial activity of Ajuga bracteosa against Plasmodium berghei infected BALB/c mice. Indian J. Med. Res., 2010, 131, 440-444.
[PMID: 20418560]
Kayani, W.K.; Dilshad, E.; Ahmed, T.; Ismail, H.; Mirza, B. Evaluation of Ajuga bracteosa for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antidepressant and anticoagulant activities. BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 2016, 16(1), 375.
[] [PMID: 27677846]
Pal, A.; Panwar, R.S. A study on Ajuga bracteosa wall. Ex Benth for analgesic activity. International. J. Curr. Biol. Med. Sci., 2011, 1(2), 12-14.
Khatri, R.S.; Ahmad, M.; Pal, G.; Ashwlayan, V.D. Evaluation of antinociceptive activity of Ajuga bracteosa wall ex Benth. Int. J. Green Pharm., 2013, 7, 73-76.
Koka, J.A.; Wani, A.H.; Bhat, M.Y.; Wani, T.A.; Parveen, S. Antimycotic activity of ethanolic and aqueous leaf extracts of Ajuga bracteosa Wall. Ex Benth. (Lamiale: Lamiaceae) and Iris Kashmiriana Baker (Asparagales: Iridaceae) against some vegetable rot fungi. Braz. J. Biol. Sci., 2018, 5(9), 75-84.
Kaithwas, G.; Gautam, R.; Jachak, S.M.; Saklani, A. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2012, 2(3), 185-188.
[] [PMID: 23569895]
Ahmed, D.; Chaudhary, M.A. Medicinal and Nutritional aspects of various trace metals determined in Ajuga bracteosa. J. Appl. Sci. Res., 2009, 5(7), 864-869.
Agarwal, G.; Pant, A.K.; Hore, S.K. In vitro evaluation of antihelmintic efficacy of Trichilia and Ajuga species on Ascaridia galli. Hygeia. J. D. Med. Vol, 2010, 2(2), 43-53.
Hu, K.; Dong, A.J.; Sun, Q.S.; Yao, X.S.; Bioassay, I. The bioactivity of 247 traditional Chinese medicinal plants against Pyricularia oryzae. Pharm. Biol., 1998. 1;37(3):225-30.
Hu, K.; Dong, A.; Liu, H.; Feng, H.; Sun, Qishi; Yao, X. Bioactivity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines against Pyricularia oryzae. Pharm. Biol., 1999, 37(3), 225-230.
Yousaf, T.; Rafique, S.; Wahid, F.; Rehman, S.; Nazir, A.; Rafique, J.; Aslam, K.; Shabir, G.; Shah, S.M. Phytochemical profiling and antiviral activity of Ajuga bracteosa, Ajuga parviflora, Berberis lycium and Citrus lemon against Hepatitis C Virus. Microb. Pathog., 2018, 118, 154-158.
[] [PMID: 29571723]
Kumar, S.; Javed, M.S.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R. Chemical composition, in vitro antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of essential oil from leaves of Ajuga parviflora Benth. Asian J. Pharmaceut. Clinical Res., 2018, 11(2)
Luan, F.; Han, K.; Li, M.; Zhang, T.; Liu, D.; Yu, L.; Lv, H. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of species from the Genus Ajuga L.: A systematic review. Am. J. Chin. Med., 2019, 47(5), 959-1003.
[] [PMID: 31416340]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy