Uterine fibroids (leiomyomas or myomas) are the most frequent benign tumors in women. Heavy menstrual bleeding with resultant anemia, dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, infertility, urinary symptoms and constipation are generally associated with uterine fibroids (UFs). Although strategies mainly resort to surgical intervention, medical treatments are considered the first-line treatment to preserve fertility and avoid surgery. The aim of this review is to offer available and the newest medical treatment options for symptomatic UFs. Various medical therapies are now available for women with uterine fibroids, although each therapy has its own advantages and disadvantages. Our topic specifically explores gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs), but also provides the reader with useful advice on the therapies for fibroids available after the recent European Medicines Agency (EMA) warning (EMA/160220/2020). The treatment options depend on the personal treatment objectives of the patients, in addition to treatment effectiveness and necessity for recurrent interventions.
Keywords: Uterine fibroids, selective progesterone receptor modulators, medical therapy, gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists, gonadotrophin- releasing hormone antagonists, elagolix, ulipristal acetate, vilaprisan.