Generic placeholder image

Current Bioactive Compounds


ISSN (Print): 1573-4072
ISSN (Online): 1875-6646

Research Article

Phytochemical Investigation of Phenolic Constituents and In vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Five Algerian Propolis

Author(s): Amina Bouaroura, Narimane Segueni*, Ramazan Erenler, Abdghani May, Chawki Bensouici, Salah Akkal and Salah Rhouati

Volume 17 , Issue 8 , 2021

Published on: 31 December, 2020

Article ID: e010621189764 Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/1573407216999201231200041

Price: $65


Background: Algerian propolis has gained interest in the last recent years. Many researches concerning both its biological effects and chemical composition were performed.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the chemical composition in particular phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of five Algerian propolis collected from different geographical parts of the Algerian north namely: Constantine (CN), Boumerdes (BN), Mila (MN), Tebessa (TN) and Guelma (GN).

Methods: Propolis extracts were obtained using solvents of varying polarity: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and finally methanol. Phenolic compounds were determined by liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, total flavonoid and phenolic contents were also determined. Antioxidant activity was investigated using five complementary tests namely: DPPH., ABTS.+ assays for radical-scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid assay for lipid peroxidation activity, CUPRAC and FRAP assays for reduction capacity.

Results: The main phenolic compounds detected in the present study were caffeic, p-coumaric, cinnamic and chlorogenic acids as well as naringenin and kampferol. Among the tested extracts, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts exhibited the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents and the strongest antioxidant activity. Propolis of Constantine was the most active one.

Conclusion: Our results suggest the potential use of Algerian propolis as a natural source of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

Keywords: Propolis, Algeria, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, LC-MS/MS, antioxidant activity.

Graphical Abstract
Kocot, J.; Kiełczykowska, M.; Luchowska-Kocot, D.; Kurzepa, J.; Musik, I. Antioxidant potential of propolis, bee pollen, and royal jelly: Possible medical application; Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2018.
Wagh, V.D. Propolis: A wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials; Adv Parmacol Sci, 2013.
Bonamigo, T.; Campos, J.F.; Oliveira, A.S.; Torquato, H.F.V.; Balestieri, J.B.P.; Cardoso, C.A.L.; Paredes-Gamero, E.J.; de Picoli Souza, K.; Dos Santos, E.L. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of propolis of Plebeia droryana and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae) from the Brazilian Cerrado biome. PLoS One, 2017, 12(9)
[] [PMID: 28898258]
Bankova, V.; de Castro, S.L.; Marcucci, M.C. Propolis: Recent advances in chemistry and plant origin. Apidologie (Celle), 2000, 31(1), 3-15.
Burdock, G.A. Review of the biological properties and toxicity of bee propolis (propolis). Food Chem. Toxicol., 1998, 36(4), 347-363.
[] [PMID: 9651052]
Garrido , F.S.; Lasa , L.E.; Echechipía , M.S.; Arroabarren , A.E.; Anda , A.M.; Tabar Purroy, A.I. Allergic contact stomatitis due to therapeutic propolis. Contact Dermat., 2004, 50(5), 321.
[] [PMID: 15209820]
Greenaway, W.; Scaysbrook, T.; Whatley, F.R. The composition and plant origins of propolis: a report of work at Oxford. Bee World, 1990, 71(3), 107-118.
Omar, R.; Igoli, J.O.; Zhang, T.; Gray, A.I.; Ebiloma, G.U.; Clements, C.J.; Fearnley, J.; Edrada Ebel, R.; Paget, T.; de Koning, H.P.; Watson, D.G. The chemical characterization of Nigerian propolis samples and their activity against Trypanosoma brucei. Sci. Rep., 2017, 7(1), 923.
[] [PMID: 28424496]
Seidel, V.; Peyfoon, E.; Watson, D.G.; Fearnley, J. Comparative study of the antibacterial activity of propolis from different geographical and climatic zones. Phytother. Res., 2008, 22(9), 1256-1263.
[] [PMID: 18570199]
Shinohara, R.; Ohta, Y.; Hayashi, T.; Ikeno, T. Evaluation of antilipid peroxidative action of propolis ethanol extract. Phytother. Res., 2002, 16(4), 340-347.
[] [PMID: 12112290]
Toreti, V.C.; Sato, H.H.; Pastore, G.M.; Park, Y.K. Recent progress of propolis for its biological and chemical compositions and its botanical origin; Evid. Based Complementary Altern. Med, 2013.
Park, Y.K.; Alencar, S.M.; Aguiar, C.L. Botanical origin and chemical composition of Brazilian propolis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50(9), 2502-2506.
[] [PMID: 11958612]
Alencar, S.M.D.; Oldoni, T.L.C.; Castro, M.L.; Cabral, I.S.; Costa-Neto, C.M.; Cury, J.A.; Rosalen, P.L.; Ikegaki, M. Chemical composition and biological activity of a new type of Brazilian propolis: red propolis. J. Ethnopharmacol., 2007, 113(2), 278-283.
[] [PMID: 17656055]
Castaldo, S.; Capasso, F. Propolis, an old remedy used in modern medicine. Fitoterapia, 2002, 73(Suppl. 1), S1-S6.
[] [PMID: 12495704]
Marcucci, M.C. Propolis: chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie (Celle), 1995, 26(2), 83-99.
Markham, K.R.; Mitchell, K.A.; Wilkins, A.L.; Daldy, J.A.; Lu, Y. HPLC and GC-MS identification of the major organic constituents in New Zealand propolis. Phytochemistry, 1996, 42(1), 205-211.
Kumazawa, S.; Hamasaka, T.; Nakayama, T. Antioxidant activity of propolis of various geographic origins. Food Chem., 2004, 84(3), 329-339.
Castro, S.L. Propolis: biological and pharmacological activities. Therapeutic uses of this bee-product. Annu Rev Biomed Sci, 2001, 3, 49-83.
Sforcin, J. M. Biological properties and therapeutic applications of propolis. Phytother Res., 2016, 30(6), 894-905.
Narimane, S.; Demircan, E.; Salah, A; Ozcelik, B.Ö; Salah, R Correlation between antioxidant activity and phenolic acids profile and content of Algerian propolis: Influence of solvent. Paki J Pharm Sci., 2017, 30(4 Suppl), 1417-1423.
Socha, R.; Gałkowska, D.; Bugaj, M.; Juszczak, L. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of propolis from various regions of Poland. Nat. Prod. Res., 2015, 29(5), 416-422.
[] [PMID: 25185953]
Wided, K.; Hassiba, R.; Mesbah, L. Polyphenolic fraction of Algerian propolis reverses doxorubicin induced oxidative stress in liver cells and mitochondria. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2014, 27(6), 1891-1897.
[PMID: 25362594]
Medjeber, O.; Touri, K.; Rafa, H.; Djeraba, Z.; Belkhelfa, M.; Boutaleb, A.F.; Arroul-Lammali, A.; Belguendouz, H.; Touil-Boukoffa, C. Ex vivo immunomodulatory effect of ethanolic extract of propolis during Celiac Disease: involvement of nitric oxide pathway. Inflammopharmacology, 2018, 26(6), 1469-1481.
[] [PMID: 29516252]
Debab, M.; Toumi-Benali, F.; Dif, M.M. Antioxidant activity of propolis of west algeria. Phytotherapie, 2017, 15(4), 230-234.
Boufadi, Y.M.; Soubhye, J.; Riazi, A.; Rousseau, A.; Vanhaeverbeek, M.; Nève, J.; Boudjeltia, K.Z.; Van Antwerpen, P. Characterization and antioxidant properties of six Algerian propolis extracts: ethyl acetate extracts inhibit myeloperoxidase activity. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2014, 15(2), 2327-2345.
[] [PMID: 24514562]
Piccinelli, A.L.; Mencherini, T.; Celano, R.; Mouhoubi, Z.; Tamendjari, A.; Aquino, R.P.; Rastrelli, L. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Algerian propolis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2013, 61(21), 5080-5088.
[] [PMID: 23650897]
Sun, C.; Wu, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H. Effect of ethanol/water solvents on phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracts. Evid. Based Complement. Alternat. Med., 2015, 2015(8)
[] [PMID: 26351514]
Woźniak, M.; Mrówczyńska, L.; Kwaśniewska-Sip, P.; Waśkiewicz, A.; Nowak, P.; Ratajczak, I. Effect of the Solvent on Propolis Phenolic Profile and its Antifungal, Antioxidant, and In Vitro Cytoprotective Activity in Human Erythrocytes Under Oxidative Stress. Molecules, 2020, 25(18), 4266.
[] [PMID: 32957629]
Pahlavani, N.; Malekahmadi, M.; Firouzi, S.; Rostami, D.; Sedaghat, A.; Moghaddam, A.B.; Ferns, G.A.; Navashenaq, J.G.; Reazvani, R.; Safarian, M.; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of the effects of Propolis in inflammation, oxidative stress and glycemic control in chronic diseases. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.), 2020, 17(1), 65.
[] [PMID: 32817750]
Bouaroura, A.; Segueni, N.; Diaz, J.G.; Bensouici, C.; Akkal, S.; Rhouati, S. Preliminary analysis of the chemical composition, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities of Algerian propolis. Nat. Prod. Res., 2019, 1-5.
[] [PMID: 30760045]
Müller, L.; Gnoyke, S.; Popken, A.M.; Böhm, V. Antioxidant capacity and related parameters of different fruit formulations. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 2010, 43(6), 992-999.
Topçu, G.; Ay, M.; Bilici, A.; Sarıkürkcü, C.; Öztürk, M.; Ulubelen, A. A new flavone from antioxidant extracts of Pistacia terebinthus. Food Chem., 2007, 103(3), 816-822.
Alam, M.N.; Bristi, N.J.; Rafiquzzaman, M. Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm. J., 2013, 21(2), 143-152.
[] [PMID: 24936134]
Karadag, A.; Ozcelik, B.; Saner, S. Review of methods to determine antioxidant capacities. Food Anal. Methods, 2009, 2(1), 41-60.
Blois, M.S. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature, 1958, 181(4617), 1199-1200.
Re, R.; Pellegrini, N.; Proteggente, A.; Pannala, A.; Yang, M.; Rice-Evans, C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 1999, 26(9-10), 1231-1237.
[] [PMID: 10381194]
Marco, G.J.; Am, J. A rapid method for evaluation of antioxidants. Oil Chem Soc, 1968, 45(9), 594-598.
Oyaizu, M. Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction. Jpn. J. Nutr, 1986, 44, 307-315.
Apak, R.; Güçlü, K.; Ozyürek, M.; Karademir, S.E. Novel total antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, using their cupric ion reducing capability in the presence of neocuproine: CUPRAC method. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52(26), 7970-7981.
[] [PMID: 15612784]
Nedji, N.; Loucif-Ayad, W. Antimicrobial activity of Algerian propolis in foodborne pathogens and its quantitative chemical composition. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Dis., 2014, 4(6), 433-437.
Boisard, S.; Le Ray, A.M.; Gatto, J.; Aumond, M.C.; Blanchard, P.; Derbré, S.; Flurin, C.; Richomme, P. Chemical composition, antioxidant and anti-AGEs activities of a French poplar type propolis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62(6), 1344-1351.
[] [PMID: 24443994]
Mavri, A.; Abramovič, H.; Polak, T.; Bertoncelj, J.; Jamnik, P.; Smole Možina, S.; Jeršek, B. Chemical properties and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Slovenian propolis. Chem. Biodivers., 2012, 9(8), 1545-1558.
[] [PMID: 22899615]
Hatano, A.; Nonaka, T.; Yoshino, M.; Ahn, M.R.; Tazawa, S.; Araki, Y.; Kumazawa, S. Antioxidant activity and phenolic constituents of red propolis from Shandong, China. Lebensm. Wiss. Technol., 2012, 18(4), 577-584.
Sun, C.; Wu, Z.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H. Effect of ethanol/water solvents on phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of Beijing propolis extracts; Evid. Based Complementary Altern. Med, 2015.
Mello, B.C.; Petrus, J.C.C.; Hubinger, M.D. Concentration of flavonoids and phenolic compounds in aqueous and ethanolic propolis extracts through nanofiltration. J. Food Eng., 2010, 96(4), 533-539.
Yang, H.; Dong, Y.; Du, H.; Shi, H.; Peng, Y.; Li, X. Antioxidant compounds from propolis collected in Anhui, China. Molecules, 2011, 16(4), 3444-3455.
[] [PMID: 21512452]
Silva, C.C.F.A.; Salatino, A.; Motta, L.B.D.; Negri, G.; Salatino, M.L.F. Chemical characterization, antioxidant and anti-HIV activities of a Brazilian propolis from Ceará state. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 2019, 29(3), 309-318.
Bittencourt, M.L.F.; Ribeiro, P.R.; Franco, R.L.P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.; de Castro, R.D.; Fernandez, L.G. Metabolite profiling, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Brazilian propolis: Use of correlation and multivariate analyses to identify potential bioactive compounds. Food Res. Int., 2015, 76(Pt 3), 449-457.
[] [PMID: 28455025]
Hochheim, S.; Guedes, A.; Faccin-Galhardi, L.; Rechenchoski, D.Z.; Nozawa, C.R.; Linhares, R.E.; da Silva Fillo, H.H.; Rau, M.; Siebert, D.A. Micke. G.; Cordova, C. M. M. D. Determination of phenolic profile by HPLC–ESI-MS/MS, antioxidant activity, in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-herpetic activity of propolis from the Brazilian native bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Rev. Bras. Farmacogn., 2019, 29(3), 339-350.
Ahn, M.R.; Kumazawa, S.; Usui, Y.; Nakamura, J.; Matsuka, M.; Zhu, F.; Nakayama, T. Antioxidant activity and constituents of propolis collected in various areas of China. Food Chem., 2007, 101(4), 1383-1392.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy