Generic placeholder image

Current Chemical Biology


ISSN (Print): 2212-7968
ISSN (Online): 1872-3136

Research Article

Wi-Fi Radiation Negatively Influences Plant Growth and Biochemical Responses of Capsicum annuum L var. Pusa Jwala

Author(s): Ganesh Nikalje* and Pooja Rajam

Volume 15, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 28 December, 2020

Page: [182 - 187] Pages: 6

DOI: 10.2174/2212796814999201228193703

Price: $65


Background: Internet browsing has become an indispensable part of day-to-day life. Computers and the internet have occupied almost all sectors of human life. However, it is an artificial source of electromagnetic radiation, which has adverse effects on all living things in dose-dependant manner.

Objective: To understand the impact of electromagnetic radiations on plant, Capsicum annuum L. var. Pusa jwala emitted by Wi-Fi routers.

Methods: For the germination experiment, Chilli seeds were kept in close vicinity (5 cm) of a Wi-- Fi router for 10 days. For growth and biochemical analysis, different growth and biochemical attributes were studied after 21 days of exposure. Control seeds/plants were kept in another room with almost identical conditions like light, temperature, etc. Plant growth was measured in terms of fresh weight, shoot length, root length, leaf length, leaf breadth and leaf area index. In Biochemical analysis, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, soluble protein, lipid peroxidation and proline contents were measured as per standard protocols.

Results: The seed germination in the vicinity of the Wi-Fi router was reduced to 75% and other growth-related parameters like root and shoot length, leaf length, leaf width, leaf area index and fresh weight were significantly reduced. In the biochemical analysis, chlorophyll pigments (Chl. a, b and total chlorophyll) were observed to be reduced by 4.8, 7.2 and 5.7 fold, respectively and protein content reduced by 1.5 fold under the influence of electromagnetic radiations. The product of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) (18 fold) and proline content (10 fold) was found to be increased synergistically.

Conclusions: The electromagnetic radiations emitted by the Wi-Fi router have a negative influence on the growth and biochemical responses in Chilli plants.

Keywords: Wi-Fi radiation, Capsicum annuum, biochemical response, seed germination, electromagnetic radiations.

Graphical Abstract
Pall ML. Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environ Res 2018; 164: 405-16.
[] [PMID: 29573716]
Gorbans I, Jurenoks A. Some aspects of good practice for safe use of Wi-Fi, based on experiments and standards. App Comp Sys 2019; 24(2): 161-5.
Vian A, Davies E, Gendraud M, Bonnet P. Plant responses to high frequency electromagnetic fields. BioMed Res Int 2016; 2016
[] [PMID: 26981524]
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Non-ionizing Radiation, Part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. Lyon: IARC Press 2002; 80: p. 341.
IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). Non-ionization Radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Lyon: IARC Press 2013; 102: p. 461.
Deruelle F. The different sources of electromagnetic fields: Dangers are not limited to physical health. Electromagn Biol Med 2020; 39(2): 166-75.
[] [PMID: 32151189]
Carpenter DO. Human disease resulting from exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health 2013; 28(4): 159-72.
[] [PMID: 24280284]
Waldmann-Selsam C, Balmori-de la Puente A, Breunig H, Balmori A. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations. Sci Total Environ 2016; 572: 554-69.
[] [PMID: 27552133]
Hosseinyzadeh Z, Shojaeefard M, Hooshiyar M, Dalvand LF, Pooladi M. The Investigation of the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) in spermatogenesis of rat after exposure of Wi-Fi radiation. J Paramed Sci 2015; 6(3): 10-7.
Asl JF, Goudarzi M, Shoghi H. The radio-protective effect of rosmarinic acid against mobile phone and Wi-Fi radiation-induced oxidative stress in the brains of rats. Pharmacol Rep 2020; 72(4): 857-66.
[] [PMID: 32128712]
Fahmy HM, Mohammed FF. Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol 2020.
[] [PMID: 32762465]
Vafaei H, Kavari G, Izadi HR, et al. Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) affects anti-oxidant capacity, DNA repair genes expression and, apoptosis in pregnant mouse placenta. Iran J Basic Med Sci 2020; 23(6): 833-40.
[PMID: 32695301]
Liptai P, Dolnik B, Gumanova V. Effect of Wi-Fi radiation on seed germination and plant growth – experiment. Int J Eng 2017; 1: 109-2.
Sharma VP, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mungbean) through biochemical alterations. Z Naturforsch 2010; (65c): 66-72.
Kumar A, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kaur S, Kohli RK. EMF radiations (1800 MHz)-inhibited early seedling growth of maize (Zea mays) involves alterations in starch and sucrose metabolism. Protoplasma 2016; 253(4): 1043-9.
[] [PMID: 26277350]
Ribeiro-Oliveira JP. Electromagnetism and plant development: a new unknown in a known world. Theor Exp Plant Physiol 2019; 31: 423-7.
Rusakova A, Nosachev I, Lysenko V, et al. Impact of high strength electromagnetic fields generated by Tesla transformer on plant cell ultrastructure. Inf Process Agric 2017; 4: 253-8.
Chandel S, Kaur S, Issa M, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Appraisal of immediate and late effects of mobile phone radiations at 2100 MHz on mitotic activity and DNA integrity in root meristems of Allium cepa. Protoplasma 2019; 256(5): 1399-407.
[] [PMID: 31115694]
Kumar A, Kaur S, Chandel S, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Comparative cyto- and genotoxicity of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz electromagnetic field radiations in root meristems of Allium cepa. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020; 188: 109786.
Stefi AL, Margaritis LH, Christodoulakis NS. The effect of the non-ionizing radiation on exposed laboratory cultivated maize (Zea mays L.) plants. Flora 2017; 233: 22-30.
Verma S, Sharma V, Kumari N. Microwave pretreatment of tomato seeds and fruit to enhance plant photosynthesis, nutritive quality and shelf life of fruit. Postharvest Biol Technol 2020; 159: 1-14.
Azizi SMY, Hosseini Sarghein S, Majd A, Peyvandi M. The effects of the electromagnetic fields on the biochemical components, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of tea Camellia sinensis L. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2019; 25(6): 1445-56.
[] [PMID: 31736547]
Pandey SK, Singh HA. Simple, cost-effective method for leaf area estimation. J Bot 2011; 658240.
Witham FH, Blaydes DF, Devlin RM. Experiments in plant physiology New York: Van Nostrand. 1971; p. 245.
Dhindsa RH, Plumb-Dhindsa P, Thorpe TA. Leaf senescence correlated with increased level of membrane permeability, lipid peroxidation and decreased level of SOD and CAT. J Exp Bot 1981; 32: 93-101.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 1951; 193(1): 265-75.
[PMID: 14907713]
Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID. Rapid determination of free proline for water stress studies. Plant Soil 1973; 39: 205-7.
Havas M, Symington MS. Effect of Wi-Fi- radiation on germination and growth of Broccoli, Pea, Red Clover and garden cress seedling: a partial replication study. Curr Chem Biol 2016; 10: 65-73.
Grémiaux A, Girard S, Guérin V, et al. Low-amplitude, high-frequency electromagnetic field exposure causes delayed and reduced growth in Rosa hybrida. J Plant Physiol 2016; 190: 44-53.
[] [PMID: 26643955]
Scialabba A, Tamburello C. Microwave effects on germination and growth of radish (Raphanus_sativus L.) seedlings. Acta Bot Gallica 2002; 149(2): 113-23.
Sharma VP, Singh HP, Kohli RK, Batish DR. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress. Sci Total Environ 2009; 407(21): 5543-7.
[] [PMID: 19682728]
Chen YC, Chen C. Effects of mobile phone radiation on germination and early growth of different bean species. Pol J Environ Stud 2014; 23(6): 1949-58.
Sharma VP, Singh HP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations. Z Natforsch C J Biosci 2010; 65(1-2): 66-72.
[] [PMID: 20355324]
Holubowicz R, Kubisz L, Gauza M, Tong Y, Hojan-Jezierska D. Effect of low frequency magnetic field (lfmf) on the germination of seeds and selected useful characters of onion (Allium cepa L.). Not Bot Horti Agrobot Cluj-Napoca 2014; 42(1): 168-72.
Roche J, Didyk NP, Iyanytska BO, Zaimenko NV, Chudoyska OO. Effects of the electromagnetic field of Wi-Fi systems and experimental gadget M4 on growth, development and photosynthesis of wheat. Plant Introduction 2020; 85/86: 15-24.
Alattar EM, Elwasife KY, Radwan ES, Elrifi YA. Response of corn (Zea Mays), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) seedlings to Wi-Fi radiation. Rom J Biophys 2017; 27(3-4): 137-50.
Zareh H, Mohsenzadeh S. Electromagnetic waves from GSM mobile phone simulator increase germination and abiotic stress in zea mays L. J Nutr Food Sci 2015; 5: 382.
Mustafa MG. Biochemical basis of ozone toxicity. Free Radic Biol Med 1990; 9(3): 245-65.
[] [PMID: 2272533]
Tkalec M, Malarić K, Pevalek-Kozlina B. Influence of 400, 900, and 1900 MHz electromagnetic fields on Lemna minor growth and peroxidase activity. Bioelectromagnetics 2005; 26(3): 185-93.
[] [PMID: 15768427]
Tkalec M, Malarić K, Pevalek-Kozlina B. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative stress in duckweed Lemna minor L. Sci Total Environ 2007; 388(1-3): 78-89.
[] [PMID: 17825879]
Singh HP, Sharma VP, Batish DR, Kohli RK. Cell phone electromagnetic field radiations affect rhizogenesis through impairment of biochemical processes. Environ Monit Assess 2012; 184(4): 1813-21.
[] [PMID: 21562792]
Radic S, Cvjetko P, Malaric K, Tkalec M, Pevalek-Kozlina B. Radio frequency electromagnetic field (900 MHz) induces oxidative damage to DNA and biomembrane in tobacco shoot cells (Nicotiana tabacum) Proceedings of the IEEE/MTT-S International Microwave. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. IEEE 2007; pp. 2213-6.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy