Generic placeholder image

Current Pharmaceutical Design


ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Novel Phytochemical Constituents and their Potential to Manage Diabetes

Author(s): Shaik I. Khalivulla*, Arifullah Mohammed* and Kokkanti Mallikarjuna

Volume 27, Issue 6, 2021

Published on: 22 December, 2020

Page: [775 - 788] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201222154159

Price: $65


Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting a large population worldwide and stands as one of the major global health challenges to be tackled. According to World Health Organization, about 400 million are having diabetes worldwide and it is the seventh leading cause of deaths in 2016. Plant-based natural products have been in use from ancient times as ethnomedicine for the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. As a result of that, there are several reports on plant-based natural products displaying antidiabetic activity. In the current review, such antidiabetic potential compounds reported from all plant sources along with their chemical structures are collected, presented and discussed. These kinds of reports are essential to pool the available information to one source, followed by statistical analysis and screening to check the efficacy of all known compounds in a comparative sense. This kind of analysis can give rise to a few potential compounds from hundreds, which can further be screened through in vitro and in vivo studies, and human trails leading to the drug development.

Methods: Phytochemicals, along with their potential antidiabetic property, were classified according to their basic chemical skeleton. The chemical structures of all the compounds with antidiabetic activities were elucidated in the present review. In addition to this, the distribution and their other remarkable pharmacological activities of each species are also included.

Results: The scrutiny of literature led to the identification of 44 plants with antidiabetic compounds (70) and other pharmacological activities. For the sake of information, the distribution of each species in the world is given. Many plant derivatives may exert anti-diabetic properties by improving or mimicking insulin production or action. Different classes of compounds including sulfur compounds (1-4), alkaloids (5-11), phenolic compounds (12-17), tannins (18-23), phenylpropanoids (24-27), xanthanoids (28-31), amino acid (32), stilbenoid (33), benzofuran (34), coumarin (35), flavonoids (36-49) and terpenoids (50-70) were found to be potential active compounds for antidiabetic activity. Of the 70 listed compounds, majorly 17 compounds are obtained from triterpenoids, 13 from flavonoids and 7 from alkaloids. Among all the 44 plant species, the maximum number (7) of compounds were isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa followed by Momordica charantia (6) and S. oblonga with 5 compounds.

Conclusion: This is the first paper to summarize the established chemical structures of phytochemicals that have been successfully screened for antidiabetic potential and their mechanisms of inhibition. The reported compounds could be considered as potential lead molecules for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. Further, molecular and clinical trials are required to select and establish therapeutic drug candidates.

Keywords: Insulin hormone, diabetes mellitus, antidiabetic plants, secondary metabolites, chemical structures, potential therapeutics.

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2008; 31(Suppl. 1): S55-60.
[] [PMID: 18165338]
Saeedi P, Petersohn I, Salpea P, et al. Global and regional diabetes prevalence estimates for 2019 and projections for 2030 and 2045: Results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9th edition.Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2019; 157: p. 107843..
Geneva: World Health Organization. Classification of Diabetes Mellitus 2019. Available at:.
ADA. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes . - 2019. Diabetes Care 2019; 42: 13-28.
Riddle MC. Diabetic Care. J Clin Appl Res Educ 2020; 43: S1-S212.
Evert AB, Dennison M, Gardner CD, et al. Nutrition Therapy for Adults With Diabetes or Prediabetes: A Consensus Report. Diabetes Care 2019; 42(5): 731-54.
[] [PMID: 31000505]
Bailey CJ. Metformin: historical overview. Diabetologia 2017; 60(9): 1566-76.
[] [PMID: 28776081]
Chen X, Lu Y, Fan Y, Shen Y. Voglibose: An Important Drug for Type 2 Diabetes. Validamycin and Its Derivatives. Discovery, Chemical Synthesis, and Biological Activity 2017; pp. 237-78.
Marrelli M, Amodeo V, Statti G, Conforti F. Biological Properties and Bioactive Components of Allium cepa L.: Focus on Potential Benefits in the Treatment of Obesity and Related Comorbidities. Molecules 2018; 24(1): 119.
[] [PMID: 30598012]
Gabriel NN, Wilhelm MR, Habte-Tsion H-M, Chimwamurombe P, Omoregie E. .Dietary garlic (Allium sativum) crude polysaccharides supplementation on growth, haematological parameters, whole body composition and survival at low water pH challenge in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) juveniles. Sci African 2019; 5e00128.
Jiku MAS, Alimuzzaman M, Singha A, et al. Response and productivity of Garlic (Allium Sativum L.) by different levels of potassium fertilizer in farm soils. Bull Natl Res Cent 2020; 44: 1-9.
Abdel-Baky ES, Abdel-Rahman ON. Cardioprotective effects of the garlic (Allium sativum) in sodium fluoride-treated rats. J Basic Appl Zool 2020; 81: 1-7.
Sheela CG, Kumud K, Augusti KT. Anti-diabetic effects of onion and garlic sulfoxide amino acids in rats. Planta Med 1995; 61(4): 356-7.
[] [PMID: 7480182]
Itokawa Y, Inoue K, Sasagawa S, Fujiwara M. Effect of S-methylcysteine sulfoxide, S-allylcysteine sulfoxide and related sulfur-containing amino acids on lipid metabolism of experimental hypercholesterolemic rats. J Nutr 1973; 103(1): 88-92.
[] [PMID: 4682454]
Zhai B, Zhang C, Sheng Y, et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of S-allyl-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) in DIO mice. Sci Rep 2018; 8(1): 3527.
[] [PMID: 29476144]
Medagama AB. Salacia reticulata (Kothala himbutu) revisited; a missed opportunity to treat diabetes and obesity? Nutr J 2015; 14: 21.
[] [PMID: 25889885]
Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Yashiro K, Matsuda H. Kotalanol, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor with thiosugar sulfonium sulfate structure, from antidiabetic ayurvedic medicine Salacia reticulata. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1998; 46(8): 1339-40.
[] [PMID: 9734318]
Staples GW, Bevacqua RF. Areca catechu (betel nut palm). Species Profiles Pacific Isl Agrofor 2006; 1: 1-17.
Joshi M, Gaonkar K, Mangoankar S, Satarkar S. Pharmacological investigation of Areca catechu extracts for evaluation of learning, memory and behavior in rats. Int Curr Pharm J 2012; 1: 128-32.
Chavan YV, Singhal RS. Separation of polyphenols and arecoline from areca nut (Areca catechu L.) by solvent extraction, its antioxidant activity, and identification of polyphenols. J Sci Food Agric 2013; 93(10): 2580-9.
[] [PMID: 23494978]
Saha I, Das J, Maiti B, Chatterji U. A protective role of arecoline hydrobromide in experimentally induced male diabetic rats. BioMed Res Int 2015.2015136738
[] [PMID: 25695047]
Malhotra SK. Chapter 24, Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.).Singh RJ, ed Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement. CRC Press 2012; 6: pp. 801-46..
Subramanian SP, Prasath GS. Antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic nature of trigonelline, a major alkaloid of fenugreek seeds studied in high-fat-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetic rats. Biomed Prev Nutr 2014; 4: 475-80.
Lin Z, Zhang C, Cao D, Damaris RN, Yang P. The Latest Studies on Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera)-an Emerging Horticultural Model Plant. Int J Mol Sci 2019; 20: 3680.
Shahnaz KH, Ali F, Shah A, Kamran F, Jahan S. Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipidemic Potential of Nelumbo nucifera Seeds in Diabetic Rats. Sains Malays 2016; 45: 1517-23.
Balakrishnan R, Vijayraja D, Jo SH, Ganesan P, Su-Kim I, Choi DK. Medicinal Profile, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacological Activities of Murraya koenigii and its Primary Bioactive Compounds. Antioxidants 2020; 9(2): 1-20.
[] [PMID: 31991665]
Patel OPS, Mishra A, Maurya R, et al. Naturally Occurring Carbazole Alkaloids from Murraya koenigii as Potential Antidiabetic Agents. J Nat Prod 2016; 79(5): 1276-84.
[] [PMID: 27136692]
Tiong SH, Looi CY, Hazni H, et al. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. Molecules 2013; 18: 9770-84.
Sreekanth D, Arunasree MK, Roy KR, Chandramohan Reddy T, Reddy GV, Reddanna P. Betanin a betacyanin pigment purified from fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica induces apoptosis in human chronic myeloid leukemia Cell line-K562. Phytomedicine 2007; 14(11): 739-46.
[] [PMID: 17482444]
Barka N, Ouzaouit K, Abdennouri M, El Makhfouk M. Dried prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) cladodes as a low-cost and eco-friendly biosorbent for dyes removal from aqueous solutions. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 2013; 44: 52-60.
León-Martínez FM, Rodríguez-Ramírez J, Medina-Torres LL, Lagunas LLM, Bernad-Bernad MJ. Effects of drying conditions on the rheological properties of reconstituted mucilage solutions (Opuntia ficus-indica). Carbohydr Polym 2011; 84: 439-45.
Dhananjayan I, Kathiroli S, Subramani S, Veerasamy V. Ameliorating effect of betanin, a natural chromoalkaloid by modulating hepatic carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities and glycogen content in streptozotocin - nicotinamide induced experimental rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2017; 88: 1069-79.
[] [PMID: 28192880]
Yamani HA, Pang EC, Mantri N, Deighton MA. Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria. Front Microbiol 2016; 7: 681.
[] [PMID: 27242708]
Baliga MS, Jimmy R, Thilakchand KR, et al. Ocimum sanctum L (Holy Basil or Tulsi) and its phytochemicals in the prevention and treatment of cancer. Nutr Cancer 2013; 65(Suppl. 1): 26-35.
[] [PMID: 23682780]
Singh D, Chaudhuri PK. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.). Ind Crops Prod 2018; 118: 367-82.
Antora RA, Salleh RM. Antihyperglycemic effect of Ocimum plants: A short review. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2017; 7: 755-9.
Singh P, Jayaramaiah RH, Agawane SB, et al. Potential Dual Role of Eugenol in Inhibiting Advanced Glycation End Products in Diabetes: Proteomic and Mechanistic Insights. Sci Rep 2016; 6: 18798.
[] [PMID: 26739611]
Wang Y, Xiang L, Wang C, Tang C, He X. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract. PLoS One 2013; 8(7)e71144
[] [PMID: 23936259]
Kato E, Kawakami K, Kawabata J. Macrocarpal C isolated from Eucalyptus globulus inhibits dipeptidyl peptidase 4 in an aggregated form. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2018; 33(1): 106-9.
[] [PMID: 29148282]
Bag A, Bhattacharyya SK, Pal NK, Chattopadhyay RR. In vitro antibacterial potential of Eugenia jambolana seed extracts against multidrug-resistant human bacterial pathogens. Microbiol Res 2012; 167(6): 352-7.
[] [PMID: 22444436]
Charepalli V, Reddivari L, Vadde R, Walia S, Radhakrishnan S, Vanamala JKP. Eugenia jambolana (Java Plum) Fruit Extract Exhibits Anti-Cancer Activity against Early Stage Human HCT-116 Colon Cancer Cells and Colon Cancer Stem Cells. Cancers (Basel) 2016; 8(3): 2-11.
[] [PMID: 26927179]
Vora A, Varghese A, Kachwala Y, et al. Eugenia jambolana extract reduces the systemic exposure of Sitagliptin and improves conditions associated with diabetes: A pharmacokinetic and a pharmacodynamic herb-drug interaction study. J Tradit Complement Med 2018; 9(4): 364-71.
[] [PMID: 31453133]
Bellesia A, Verzelloni E, Tagliazucchi D. Pomegranate ellagitannins inhibit α-glucosidase activity in vitro and reduce starch digestibility under simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2015; 66(1): 85-92.
[] [PMID: 25519249]
Jain V, Viswanatha GL, Manohar D, Shivaprasad HN. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012; 2012147202
[] [PMID: 22919408]
Sharmin T, Rahman MS, Mohammadi H. Investigation of biological activities of the flowers of Lagerstroemia speciosa, the Jarul flower of Bangladesh. BMC Complement Altern Med 2018; 18(1): 231.
[] [PMID: 30081877]
Park C, Lee J-S. Banaba: The natural remedy as antidiabetic drug. Biomed Res 2011; 22: 127-31.
Bai N, He K, Roller M, et al. Active compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa, insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory/inhibitory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56(24): 11668-74.
[] [PMID: 19053366]
Hayashi T, Maruyama H, Kasai R, et al. Ellagitannins from Lagerstroemia speciosa as activators of glucose transport in fat cells. Planta Med 2002; 68(2): 173-5.
[] [PMID: 11859474]
Shohael AM, Ali MB, Yu K-W, Hahn E-J, Paek K-Y. Effect of temperature on secondary metabolites production and antioxidant enzyme activities in Eleutherococcus senticosus somatic embryos. Tissue Organ Cult 2006; 85: 219-28.
Schmidt M, Thomsen M, Kelber O, Kraft K. Myths and facts in herbal medicines: Eleutherococcus senticosus (Siberian ginseng) and its contraindication in hypertensive patients. Botanics 2014; 4: 27-32.
Niu H-S, Liu I-M, Cheng J-T, Lin C-L, Hsu F-L. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2008; 74(2): 109-13.
[] [PMID: 18203055]
Wirngo FE, Lambert MN, Jeppesen PB. The Physiological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum Officinale) in Type 2 Diabetes. Rev Diabet Stud 2016; 13(2-3): 113-31.
[] [PMID: 28012278]
Jin S, Chang C, Zhang L, Liu Y, Huang X, Chen Z. Chlorogenic acid improves late diabetes through adiponectin receptor signaling pathways in db/db mice. PLoS One 2015; 10(4)e0120842
[] [PMID: 25849026]
Lee C-L, Lee S-L, Chen C-J, et al. Characterization of Secondary Metabolites from Purple Ipomoea batatas Leaves and their Effects on Glucose Uptake. Molecules 2016; 21(6): 745.
[] [PMID: 27338312]
Lawal U, Shaari K, Ismail Safinar I, Khatib A, Abas F. Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities of Isolated Compounds from Ipomoea aquatica. Rec Nat Prod 2016; 10: 701-7.
Asthana RK, Sharma NK, Kulshreshtha DK, Chatterjee SK. A Xanthone from Swertia chirayita. Phytochemistry 1991; 30: 1037-9.
Bajpai MB, Asthana RK, Sharma NK, Chatterjee SK, Mukherjee SK. Hypoglycemic effect of swerchirin from the hexane fraction of Swertia chirayita. Planta Med 1991; 57(2): 102-4.
[] [PMID: 1891489]
Parvez GMM. Pharmacological Activities of Mango (Mangifera Indica): A Review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2016; 5: 01-7..
Amran MS, Sultan MZ, Rahman A, Rashid MA. Antidiabetic Activity of Compounds Isolated from the Kernel of Mangifera indica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats. Dhaka Univ J Pharm Sci 2013; 12: 77-81.
Sauvaire Y, Petit P, Broca C, et al. 4-Hydroxyisoleucine: a novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes 1998; 47(2): 206-10.
[] [PMID: 9519714]
da Silva JAT, Kher MM, Soner D, Nataraj M. Indian kino tree (Pterocarpus marsupium): propagation, micropropagation, and biotechnology. Environ Exp Biol 2018; 16: 1-8.
Singh P, Bajpai V, Gupta A, Gaikwad AN, Maurya R, Kumar B. Identification and quantification of secondary metabolites of Pterocarpus marsupium by LC-MS techniques and its in-vitro lipid lowering activity. Ind Crops Prod 2019; 127: 26-35.
Husain MK, Anis M, Shahzad A. In vitro propagation of Indian Kino (Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.) using Thidiazuron. Vitr Cell Dev Biol - Plant 2007; 43: 59-64..
Manickam M, Ramanathan M, Jahromi MAF, Chansouria JPN, Ray AB. Antihyperglycemic activity of phenolics from Pterocarpus marsupium. J Nat Prod 1997; 60(6): 609-10.
[] [PMID: 9214733]
Sikka SC, Bartolome AR. Chapter 36 - Perfumery, Essential Oils, and Household Chemicals Affecting Reproductive and Sexual Health.Sikka SC, Hellstrom WJG, eds Bioenvironmental Issues Affecting Men’s Reproductive and Sexual Health. Academic Press 2018; 557-69..
Kumar V, Ahmed D, Verma A, Anwar F, Ali M, Mujeeb M. Umbelliferone β-D-galactopyranoside from Aegle marmelos (L.) corr. an ethnomedicinal plant with antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidative activity. BMC Complement Altern Med 2013; 13: 273.
[] [PMID: 24138888]
Jeyaratnam N, Nour AH, Kanthasamy R, Nour AH, Yuvaraj AR, Akindoyo JO. Essential oil from Cinnamomum cassia bark through hydrodistillation and advanced microwave assisted hydrodistillation. Ind Crops Prod 2016; 92: 57-66.
Anderson RA, Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, et al. Isolation and characterization of polyphenol type-A polymers from cinnamon with insulin-like biological activity. J Agric Food Chem 2004; 52(1): 65-70.
[] [PMID: 14709014]
Sheehan EW, Zemaitis MA, Slatkin DJ, Schiff PL Jr. A constituent of Pterocarpus marsupium, (-)-epicatechin, as a potential antidiabetic agent. J Nat Prod 1983; 46(2): 232-4.
[] [PMID: 6875579]
Singh P, Kant N. Phytopharmacological study and Ethnobotany of plant Ficus benghalensis Linn. J Phytopharm 2012; 1: 51-62.
Brahmachari HD, Augusti KT. Isolation of orally effective hypoglycemic compounds from Ficus bengalensis Linn. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1964; 8: 60-4.
[PMID: 14248533]
Khaliq HA. A review of pharmacognostic, physicochemical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Ficus bengalensis L. J Sci Innov Res 2017; 6: 151-63..
Geetha BS, Mathew BC, Augusti KT. Hypoglycemic effects of leucodelphinidin derivative isolated from Ficus bengalensis (Linn). Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1994; 38(3): 220-2.
[PMID: 7814088]
Hashem AN, Soliman MS, Hamed MA, Swilam NF, Lindequist U, Nawwar MA. Beta vulgaris subspecies cicla var. flavescens (Swiss chard): flavonoids, hepatoprotective and hypolipidemic activities. Pharmazie 2016; 71(4): 227-32.
[PMID: 27209705]
Mohammed HS, Abdel-Aziz MM, Abu-Baker MS, Saad AM, Mohamed MA, Ghareeb MA. Antibacterial and Potential Antidiabetic Activities of Flavone C-glycosides Isolated from Beta vulgaris Subspecies cicla L. var. Flavescens (Amaranthaceae) Cultivated in Egypt. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2019; 20(7): 595-604.
[] [PMID: 31203800]
Kumar M, Alok S, Jain SK, Verma A, Mahor A, Sabharwal M. Morphology, pharmacological activity, pharmaceutical preparation, doses and side effect of Coccinia indica (Wight & Arn.): An overview. J Coast Life Med 2013; 1: 330-6.
Jamwal A, Kumar S. Antidiabetic Activity of Isolated Compound from Coccinia indica. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2019; 53: 151-9.
Saleem R, Ahmad M, Hussain SA, et al. Hypotensive, hypoglycaemic and toxicological studies on the flavonol C-glycoside shamimin from Bombax ceiba. Planta Med 1999; 65(4): 331-4.
[] [PMID: 10364838]
Shahat AA, Hassan RA, Nazif NM, et al. Isolation of mangiferin from Bombax malabaricum and structure revision of shamimin. Planta Med 2003; 69(11): 1068-70.
[] [PMID: 14735452]
Kumar V, Thakur AK, Barothia ND, Chatterjee SS. Therapeutic potentials of Brassica juncea: an overview. Tang Int J Genuin Tradit Med 2011; 1: 1-17.
Yokozawa T, Kim HY, Cho EJ, Choi JS, Chung HY. Antioxidant effects of isorhamnetin 3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside isolated from mustard leaf (Brassica juncea) in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(19): 5490-5.
[] [PMID: 12207497]
Cásedas G, Les F, González-Burgos E, Gómez-Serranillos MP, Smith C, López V. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside inhibits different enzymes involved in central nervous system pathologies and type-2 diabetes. S Afr J Bot 2019; 120: 241-6.
Sulaiman CT, Thushar KV, Satheesh G, Balachandran I. C.T S. Phenolic characterisation of selected Salacia species using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Nat Prod Res 2014; 28(13): 1021-4.
[] [PMID: 24730982]
Matsuda H, Murakami T, Yashiro K, Yamahara J, Yoshikawa M. Antidiabetic principles of natural medicines. IV. Aldose reductase and qlpha-glucosidase inhibitors from the roots of Salacia oblonga Wall. (Celastraceae): structure of a new friedelane-type triterpene, kotalagenin 16-acetate. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1999; 47(12): 1725-9.
[] [PMID: 10748716]
Peter EL, Mtewa AG, Nagendrappa PB, Kaligirwa A, Sesaazi CD. Systematic review and meta-analysis protocol for efficacy and safety of Momordica charantia L. on animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Syst Rev 2020; 9(1): 7.
[] [PMID: 31915054]
Bortolotti M, Mercatelli D, Polito L. Momordica charantia, a Nutraceutical Approach for Inflammatory Related Diseases. Front Pharmacol 2019; 10: 486.
[] [PMID: 31139079]
Singh A, Singh SP, Bamezai R. Momordica charantia (Bitter Gourd) peel, pulp, seed and whole fruit extract inhibits mouse skin papillomagenesis. Toxicol Lett 1998; 94(1): 37-46.
[] [PMID: 9544697]
Shivanagoudra SR, Perera WH, Perez JL, et al. Cucurbitane-type compounds from Momordica charantia: Isolation, in vitro antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activities and in silico modeling approaches. Bioorg Chem 2019; 87: 31-42.
[] [PMID: 30856374]
Sánchez M, González-Burgos E, Iglesias I, Gómez-Serranillos MP. Pharmacological Update Properties of Aloe Vera and its Major Active Constituents. Molecules 2020; 25(6): 1324.
[] [PMID: 32183224]
Tanaka M, Misawa E, Ito Y, et al. Identification of five phytosterols from Aloe vera gel as anti-diabetic compounds. Biol Pharm Bull 2006; 29(7): 1418-22.
[] [PMID: 16819181]
Keller AC, Ma J, Kavalier A, He K, Brillantes A-MB, Kennelly EJ. Saponins from the traditional medicinal plant Momordica charantia stimulate insulin secretion in vitro. Phytomedicine 2011; 19(1): 32-7.
[] [PMID: 22133295]
Mathew NS, Negi PS. Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of wild banana (Musa acuminata Colla): A review. J Ethnopharmacol 2017; 196: 124-40.
[] [PMID: 27988402]
Wu H, Xu F, Hao J, Yang Y, Wang X. Antihyperglycemic Activity of Banana (Musa nana Lour.) Peel and Its Active Ingredients in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Material, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering. 231-8.
Hou W, Li Y, Zhang Q, et al. Triterpene acids isolated from Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves as α-glucosidase inhibitors. Phytother Res 2009; 23(5): 614-8.
[] [PMID: 19107840]
Zong W, Zhao G. Corosolic acid isolation from the leaves of Eriobotrta japonica showing the effects on carbohydrate metabolism and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007; 16(Suppl. 1): 346-52.
[PMID: 17392131]
Xu S, Wang G, Peng W, et al. Corosolic acid isolated from Eriobotrya japonica leaves reduces glucose level in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, zebrafish and rats. Sci Rep 2019; 9(1): 4388.
[] [PMID: 30867526]
Shackleton RT, Witt AB, Aool W, Pratt CF. Distribution of the invasive alien weed, Lantana camara, and its ecological and livelihood impacts in eastern Africa. Afr J Range Forage Sci 2017; 34: 1-11.
Kazmi I, Rahman M, Afzal M, et al. Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: a new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara. Fitoterapia 2012; 83(1): 142-6.
[] [PMID: 22051701]
Tiwari P, Mishra BN, Sangwan NS. Phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Gymnema sylvestre: an important medicinal plant. BioMed Res Int 2014; 2014:830285
[] [PMID: 24511547]
Sugihara Y, Nojima H, Matsuda H, Murakami T, Yoshikawa M, Kimura I. Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2000; 2(4): 321-7.
[] [PMID: 11249615]
Gan Q, Wang J, Hu J, et al. The role of diosgenin in diabetes and diabetic complications. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2020; 198105575
[] [PMID: 31899316]
Chempakam B. Hypoglycaemic activity of arecoline in betel nut Areca catechu L. Indian J Exp Biol 1993; 31(5): 474-5.
[PMID: 8359856]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy