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Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1871-5257
ISSN (Online): 1875-6182

General Review Article

Pathophysiology of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Role of Vitamins, and Herbal Extracts in the Reduction of Cardiovascular Risks

Author(s): Ravindra Kumar, Sujata Malik, Reena Tiwari, Saule B. Zhautivova, Abdikadirova H. Rakhimovna, Tilak Raj and Punit Kumar*

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 17 December, 2020

Page: [175 - 186] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/1871525718666201217102638

Price: $65


Background: Heart disease (cardiovascular disease: CVD) is considered the leading cause of worldwide death. These diseases are recognized as group of disorders which are related to heart and blood vessels. Generally, heart diseases are considered life style associated diseases but many other factors are also found associated with cardiovascular diseases.

Objective: The aim of this review is to provide the till date information regarding local and circulatory disorders, role of different vitamins and herbs on heart diseases.

Methods: This review article contains a detailed survey of literature about cardiovascular diseases, which was available in different online databases such as; PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, Elsevier, and Google Scholar, etc. In this review, the authors have focused on the description of cardiovascular disorders, their pathophysiological properties and importance of micronutrients, vitamins and herbs in the management of cardiovascular diseases.

Results: Cardiovascular diseases are considered responsible for approximately 17.9 million deaths annually at the global level. Surprisingly, low- and middle-income countries count for 75% of CVD deaths. These diseases represent disorders related to circulatory systems specially heart and coronary arteries. Many lifestyle associated factors such as; high cholesterol consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, metabolic disorders, stress, and other factors such as; family history, age, gender and genetic factors, etc. have been found involved in occurrence of CVDs. That’s why management of diet, management of tobacco and alcohol consumption, management of stress, increased physical activities are considered population-wide strategies for control cardiovascular diseases. On the basis of pathophysiology, heart diseases are of many types and out of them, Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) and Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) are considered serious and catastrophic cardiac disorders. Intake of vitamins, micronutrients, lycopene, omega 3 fatty acid and many herbs like Crataegus oxyacantha (Hawthron), Allium sativum (garlic), Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), Ganoderma lucidum (lingzhi), Ginkgo biloba have been identified good for cardiovascular diseases management and treatment.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular diseases are considered one of the fatal clinical conditions, as many of them are asymptomatic. The regulation of diet, increased physical activities, and healthy lifestyle are recommended to control the development of cardiovascular problems. Including this, scientific studies have supported the role of many vitamins, nutrients and herbs as beneficial in cardiovascular diseases, but many of them could not demonstrate their role at clinical level but it is suggested that their role as nutrients can not be ignored and their consumption may reduce the cardiovascular risks.

Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, shock, ischemia, myocardial infarction, stenosis, herbs, omega-3-fatty acid.

Graphical Abstract

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