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ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

Is COVID-19 a Systemic Disease?

Author(s): Sherif Mohamed*, Khaled Saad, Ghada Elgohary, Azza AbdElHaffez and Nashwa Abd El-Aziz

Volume 2 , Issue 5 , 2021

Published on: 15 December, 2020

Article ID: e060521189167 Pages: 5

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201216101914


Background: Many observations denote that we should deal with COVID-19 as a systemic disease.

Methods: In the following report, we briefly discuss observations denoting “the systemic” nature of COVID-19.

Results: COVID-19 virology, the roles of ACE-2 receptor in COVID-19 pathogenesis, immunological aspects of the disease, endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy, and autopsy studies denote the systemic nature of COVID-19.

Conclusion: Thinking of COVID-19 as a systemic disease, we will implement our ways of understanding and hence dealing with that disease. The most important public health solution is an effective vaccine for the broad population remaining at risk. As patients with COVID-19 present a broad spectrum of clinical presentation and distinct phenotypes, different strategies of management should be customized to the specific individual phenotypes. Further researches are highly needed to clarify the concept of “Is COVID-19 a systemic disease?”. Until that time, we think that clinicians should deal with COVID-19 as a systemic disease.

Keywords: COVID-19, systemic disease, immunity, pathobiology, ACE-2, coronavirus.

Graphical Abstract
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