Mycotoxins are defined as fungi that have negative effects on human health. The immune system of the organism is affected by mycotoxins first, and developmental problems, systemic diseases and death can be observed. Although this damage is important for all individuals, due to immaturity of the developmental areas, weak immune system and vulnerability against external factors, it can seriously affect children both in the pre- and in the postpartum period. It is aimed to examine the effects of mycotoxins on child development, which is also very important in the study, together with the studies conducted. In the research, a document analysis method was used to determine the effects of mycotoxins on children. The articles examining the effects of mycotoxins and mycotoxins on children were searched from Google Scholar between 2002 and 2020, accessible books were examined and the results of these studies were discussed as a whole. As a result of the encounter of the fetus with mycotoxins in the womb, the rate of low birth weight babies increases. At the same time, growth retardation, congenital anomalies and neural tube defects are encountered in the fetus. In infancy, mycotoxins cause developmental retardation, damage to the immune system, health problems, especially gastrointestinal problems, and cognitive development problems. As a result of encountering mycotoxins in childhood and adolescence, developmental delays, cognitive and neurological problems, and academic failures can be seen.