Generic placeholder image

Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry


ISSN (Print): 1389-5575
ISSN (Online): 1875-5607

Review Article

The Role of EGCG in Breast Cancer Prevention and Therapy.

Author(s): Adriana Romano and Fátima Martel*

Volume 21, Issue 7, 2021

Published on: 11 December, 2020

Page: [883 - 898] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/1389557520999201211194445

Price: $65


Background: Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women. Green tea has been studied for breast cancer chemopreventive and possibly chemotherapeutic effects due to its high content in polyphenolic compounds, including epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG).

Method: This review is based on literature research that included papers registered on the Medline® database. The research was conducted through PubMed, applying the following query: “EGCG”AND "breast cancer”. The result was a total of 88 articles in which this review stands on.

Results: In vitro, EGCG shows antioxidant or pro-oxidant properties, depending on the concentration and exposure time. EGCG blocks cell cycle progression and modulates signaling pathways that affect cell proliferation and differentiation. EGCG also induces apoptosis, negatively modulates different steps involved in metastasis, and targets angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF transcription. In vivo investigations have shown that oral administration of EGCG results in the reduction of tumor growth and in antimetastatic and antiangiogenic effects in animal xenograft and allograft models.

Discussion: Much remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effects of EGCG on mammary carcinogenesis. In addition, more studies in vivo are necessary to determine the potential toxicity of EGCG at higher doses and to elucidate its interactions with other drugs.

Conclusion: A protective effect of EGCG has been shown in different experimental models and under different experimental conditions, suggesting clinical implications of EGCG for breast cancer prevention and therapy. The data presented in this review support the importance of further investigations.

Keywords: Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), breast cancer, anticarcinogenic effects, cancer prevention, cancer therapy.

Graphical Abstract
Sartippour, M.R.; Shao, Z.M.; Heber, D.; Beatty, P.; Zhang, L.; Liu, C.; Ellis, L.; Liu, W.; Go, V.L.; Brooks, M.N. Green tea inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) induction in human breast cancer cells. J. Nutr., 2002, 132(8), 2307-2311.
[] [PMID: 12163680]
Mokbel, K.; Mokbel, K. Chemoprevention of breast cancer with vitamins and micronutrients: A Concise Review. In Vivo, 2019, 33(4), 983-997.
[] [PMID: 31280187]
Nakachi, K.; Suemasu, K.; Suga, K.; Takeo, T.; Imai, K.; Higashi, Y. Influence of drinking green tea on breast cancer malignancy among Japanese patients. Jpn. J. Cancer Res., 1998, 89(3), 254-261.
[] [PMID: 9600118]
Sun, C.L.; Yuan, J.M.; Koh, W.P.; Yu, M.C. Green tea, black tea and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Carcinogenesis, 2006, 27(7), 1310-1315.
[] [PMID: 16311246]
Zhang, M.; Holman, C.D.; Huang, J.P.; Xie, X. Green tea and the prevention of breast cancer: A case-control study in Southeast China. Carcinogenesis, 2007, 28(5), 1074-1078.
[] [PMID: 17183063]
Yu, Y.; Deng, Y.; Lu, B.M.; Liu, Y.X.; Li, J.; Bao, J.K. Green tea catechins: A fresh flavor to anticancer therapy. Apoptosis, 2014, 19(1), 1-18.
[] [PMID: 24081390]
Cabrera, C.; Artacho, R.; Giménez, R. Beneficial effects of green tea –– A review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 2006, 25(2), 79-99.
[] [PMID: 16582024]
Yang, C.S.; Wang, X.; Lu, G.; Picinich, S.C. Cancer prevention by tea: animal studies, molecular mechanisms and human relevance. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2009, 9(6), 429-439.
[] [PMID: 19472429]
Katiyar, S.K.; Mukhtar, H. Tea antioxidants in cancer chemoprevention. J. Cell. Biochem. Suppl., 1997, 27, 59-67.
[<59:AID-JCB11>3.0.CO;2-G] [PMID: 9591194]
Sur, S.; Panda, C.K. Molecular aspects of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic efficacies of tea and tea polyphenols. Nutrition, 2017, 43-44, 8-15.
[] [PMID: 28935149]
Na, H.K.; Kim, E.H.; Jung, J.H.; Lee, H.H.; Hyun, J.W.; Surh, Y.J. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate induces Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzyme expression via activation of PI3K and ERK in human mammary epithelial cells. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 2008, 476(2), 171-177.
[] [PMID: 18424257]
Xiang, L.P.; Wang, A.; Ye, J.H.; Zheng, X.Q.; Polito, C.A.; Lu, J.L.; Li, Q.S.; Liang, Y.R. Suppressive effects of tea catechins on breast cancer. Nutrients, 2016, 8(8), 7-25.
[] [PMID: 27483305]
Frei, B.; Higdon, J.V. Antioxidant activity of tea polyphenols in vivo: Evidence from animal studies. J. Nutr., 2003, 133(10), 3275S-3284S.
[] [PMID: 14519826]
Foygel, K.; Sekar, T.V.; Paulmurugan, R. Monitoring the antioxidant mediated chemosensitization and ARE-signaling in triple negative breast cancer therapy. PLoS One, 2015, 10(11)e0141913
[] [PMID: 26536456]
Braicu, C.; Pilecki, V.; Balacescu, O.; Irimie, A.; Neagoe, I.B. The relationships between biological activities and structure of flavan-3-ols. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2011, 12(12), 9342-9353.
[] [PMID: 22272136]
Braicu, C.; Gherman, C. Epigallocatechin gallate induce cell death and apoptosis in triple negative breast cancer cells Hs578T. J. Drug Target., 2013, 21(3), 250-256.
[] [PMID: 23163783]
Farhan, M.; Khan, H.Y.; Oves, M.; Al-Harrasi, A.; Rehmani, N.; Arif, H.; Hadi, S.M.; Ahmad, A. Cancer therapy by catechins involves redox cycling of copper ions and generation of reactive oxygen species. Toxins (Basel), 2016, 8(2), 37.
[] [PMID: 26861392]
Ranzato, E.; Magnelli, V.; Martinotti, S.; Waheed, Z.; Cain, S.M.; Snutch, T.P.; Marchetti, C.; Burlando, B. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate elicits Ca2+ spike in MCF-7 breast cancer cells: Essential role of Cav3.2 channels. Cell Calcium, 2014, 56(4), 285-295.
[] [PMID: 25260713]
Tran, P.L.; Kim, S.A.; Choi, H.S.; Yoon, J.H.; Ahn, S.G. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 and exhibits anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. BMC Cancer, 2010, 10, 276.
[] [PMID: 20537126]
Liang, Y.C.; Lin-Shiau, S.Y.; Chen, C.F.; Lin, J.K. Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 4 activities as well as induction of Cdk inhibitors p21 and p27 during growth arrest of human breast carcinoma cells by (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. J. Cell. Biochem., 1999, 75(1), 1-12.
[<1:AID-JCB1>3.0.CO;2-N] [PMID: 10462699]
Thangapazham, R.L.; Singh, A.K.; Sharma, A.; Warren, J.; Gaddipati, J.P.; Maheshwari, R.K. Green tea polyphenols and its constituent epigallocatechin gallate inhibits proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Lett., 2007, 245(1-2), 232-241.
[] [PMID: 16519995]
Kavanagh, K.T.; Hafer, L.J.; Kim, D.W.; Mann, K.K.; Sherr, D.H.; Rogers, A.E.; Sonenshein, G.E. Green tea extracts decrease carcinogen-induced mammary tumor burden in rats and rate of breast cancer cell proliferation in culture. J. Cell. Biochem., 2001, 82(3), 387-398.
[] [PMID: 11500915]
Mittal, A.; Pate, M.S.; Wylie, R.C.; Tollefsbol, T.O.; Katiyar, S.K. EGCG down-regulates telomerase in human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells, leading to suppression of cell viability and induction of apoptosis. Int. J. Oncol., 2004, 24(3), 703-710.
[] [PMID: 14767556]
Meeran, S.M.; Patel, S.N.; Chan, T.H.; Tollefsbol, T.O. A novel prodrug of epigallocatechin-3-gallate: differential epigenetic hTERT repression in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Prev. Res. (Phila.), 2011, 4(8), 1243-1254.
[] [PMID: 21411498]
Hastak, K.; Gupta, S.; Ahmad, N.; Agarwal, M.K.; Agarwal, M.L.; Mukhtar, H. Role of p53 and NF-kappaB in epigallocatechin-3-gallate-induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells. Oncogene, 2003, 22(31), 4851-4859.
[] [PMID: 12894226]
Masuda, M.; Suzui, M.; Lim, J.T.; Deguchi, A.; Soh, J.W.; Weinstein, I.B. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate decreases VEGF production in head and neck and breast carcinoma cells by inhibiting EGFR-related pathways of signal transduction. J. Exp. Ther. Oncol., 2002, 2(6), 350-359.
[] [PMID: 12440226]
Chung, S.S.; Vadgama, J.V. Curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit the cancer stem cell phenotype via down-regulation of STAT3-NFκB signaling. Anticancer Res., 2015, 35(1), 39-46.
[PMID: 25550533]
Pianetti, S.; Guo, S.; Kavanagh, K.T.; Sonenshein, G.E. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate inhibits Her-2/neu signaling, proliferation, and transformed phenotype of breast cancer cells. Cancer Res., 2002, 62(3), 652-655.
[PMID: 11830514]
Ediriweera, M.K.; Tennekoon, K.H.; Samarakoon, S.R.; Thabrew, I.; de Silva, E.D. Protective effects of six selected dietary compounds against leptin-induced proliferation of oestrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) breast cancer cells. Medicines (Basel), 2017, 4(3), 230-242.
[] [PMID: 28930270]
Farabegoli, F.; Papi, A.; Orlandi, M. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate down-regulates EGFR, MMP-2, MMP-9 and EMMPRIN and inhibits the invasion of MCF-7 tamoxifen-resistant cells. Biosci. Rep., 2011, 31(2), 99-108.
[] [PMID: 20446926]
Filippi, A.; Picot, T.; Aanei, C.M.; Nagy, P.; Szöllősi, J.; Campos, L.; Ganea, C.; Mocanu, M.M. Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate alleviates the malignant phenotype in A-431 epidermoid and SK-BR-3 breast cancer cell lines. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 2018, 69(5), 584-597.
[] [PMID: 29157036]
Khan, N.; Mukhtar, H. Multitargeted therapy of cancer by green tea polyphenols. Cancer Lett., 2008, 269(2), 269-280.
[] [PMID: 18501505]
Moreira, L.; Araújo, I.; Costa, T.; Correia-Branco, A.; Faria, A.; Martel, F.; Keating, E. Quercetin and epigallocatechin gallate inhibit glucose uptake and metabolism by breast cancer cells by an estrogen receptor-independent mechanism. Exp. Cell Res., 2013, 319(12), 1784-1795.
[] [PMID: 23664836]
Wei, R.; Mao, L.; Xu, P.; Zheng, X.; Hackman, R.M.; Mackenzie, G.G.; Wang, Y. Suppressing glucose metabolism with epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) reduces breast cancer cell growth in preclinical models. Food Funct., 2018, 9(11), 5682-5696.
[] [PMID: 30310905]
Lewis, K.A.; Jordan, H.R.; Tollefsbol, T.O. Effects of SAHA and EGCG on growth potentiation of triple-negative breast cancer cells. Cancers (Basel), 2018, 11(1), 12-26.
[] [PMID: 30591655]
Lubecka, K.; Kaufman-Szymczyk, A.; Cebula-Obrzut, B.; Smolewski, P.; Szemraj, J.; Fabianowska-Majewska, K. Novel clofarabine-based combinations with polyphenols epigenetically reactivate retinoic acid receptor beta, inhibit cell Growth, and induce apoptosis of breast bancer bells. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 2018, 19(12), 34-50.
[] [PMID: 30544666]
Guo, S.; Yang, S.; Taylor, C.; Sonenshein, G.E. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3 gallate (EGCG) affects gene expression of breast cancer cells transformed by the carcinogen 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene. J. Nutr., 2005, 135(12)(Suppl.), 2978S-2986S.
[] [PMID: 16317158]
Hong, O.Y.; Noh, E.M.; Jang, H.Y.; Lee, Y.R.; Lee, B.K.; Jung, S.H.; Kim, J.S.; Youn, H.J. Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via inactivation of the β-catenin signaling pathway. Oncol. Lett., 2017, 14(1), 441-446.
[] [PMID: 28693189]
De Amicis, F.; Russo, A.; Avena, P.; Santoro, M.; Vivacqua, A.; Bonofiglio, D.; Mauro, L.; Aquila, S.; Tramontano, D.; Fuqua, S.A.; Andò, S. In vitro mechanism for downregulation of ER-α expression by epigallocatechin gallate in ER+/PR+ human breast cancer cells. Mol. Nutr. Food Res., 2013, 57(5), 840-853.
[] [PMID: 23322423]
Shi, L.; Dong, B.; Li, Z.; Lu, Y.; Ouyang, T.; Li, J.; Wang, T.; Fan, Z.; Fan, T.; Lin, B.; Wang, Z.; Xie, Y. Expression of ER-α36, a novel variant of estrogen receptor α, and resistance to tamoxifen treatment in breast cancer. J. Clin. Oncol., 2009, 27(21), 3423-3429.
[] [PMID: 19487384]
Pan, X.; Zhao, B.; Song, Z.; Han, S.; Wang, M. Estrogen receptor-α36 is involved in epigallocatechin-3-gallate induced growth inhibition of ER-negative breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. J. Pharmacol. Sci., 2016, 130(2), 85-93.
[] [PMID: 26810571]
Van Aller, G.S.; Carson, J.D.; Tang, W.; Peng, H.; Zhao, L.; Copeland, R.A.; Tummino, P.J.; Luo, L. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, is a dual phosphoinositide-3-kinase/mTOR inhibitor. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2011, 406(2), 194-199.
[] [PMID: 21300025]
Radhakrishnan, R.; Pooja, D.; Kulhari, H.; Gudem, S.; Ravuri, H.G.; Bhargava, S.; Ramakrishna, S. Bombesin conjugated solid lipid nanoparticles for improved delivery of epigallocatechin gallate for breast cancer treatment. Chem. Phys. Lipids, 2019.224104770
[] [PMID: 30965023]
Baliga, M.S.; Meleth, S.; Katiyar, S.K. Growth inhibitory and antimetastatic effect of green tea polyphenols on metastasis-specific mouse mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells in vitro and in vivo systems. Clin. Cancer Res., 2005, 11(5), 1918-1927.
[] [PMID: 15756018]
Zhao, X.; Tian, H.; Ma, X.; Li, L. Epigallocatechin gallate, the main ingredient of green tea induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Front. Biosci., 2006, 11, 2428-2433.
[] [PMID: 16720324]
Zan, L.; Chen, Q.; Zhang, L.; Li, X. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) suppresses growth and tumorigenicity in breast cancer cells by downregulation of miR-25. Bioengineered, 2019, 10(1), 374-382.
[] [PMID: 31431131]
Moradzadeh, M.; Hosseini, A.; Erfanian, S.; Rezaei, H. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate promotes apoptosis in human breast cancer T47D cells through down-regulation of PI3K/AKT and telomerase. Pharmacol. Rep., 2017, 69(5), 924-928.
[] [PMID: 28646740]
Luo, X.; Guo, L.; Zhang, L.; Hu, Y.; Shang, D.; Ji, D. Bioinformatics analysis of microarray profiling identifies the mechanism of focal adhesion kinase signalling pathway in proliferation and apoptosis of breast cancer cells modulated by green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin 3-gallate. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2018, 70(12), 1606-1618.
[] [PMID: 30187481]
Thangapazham, R.L.; Passi, N.; Maheshwari, R.K. Green tea polyphenol and epigallocatechin gallate induce apoptosis and inhibit invasion in human breast cancer cells. Cancer Biol. Ther., 2007, 6(12), 1938-1943.
[] [PMID: 18059161]
Bimonte, S.; Cascella, M.; Barbieri, A.; Arra, C.; Cuomo, A. Shining a Light on the Effects of the combination of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and tapentadol on the growth of human triple-negative breast cancer cells. In Vivo, 2019, 33(5), 1463-1468.
[] [PMID: 31471393]
Tang, Y.; Zhao, D.Y.; Elliott, S.; Zhao, W.; Curiel, T.J.; Beckman, B.S.; Burow, M.E. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human breast cancer cells through survivin suppression. Int. J. Oncol., 2007, 31(4), 705-711.
[] [PMID: 17786300]
Mignolet, A.; Wood, B.R.; Goormaghtigh, E. Intracellular investigation on the differential effects of 4 polyphenols on MCF-7 breast cancer cells by Raman imaging. Analyst (Lond.), 2017, 143(1), 258-269.
[] [PMID: 29214243]
Pan, M.H.; Lin, C.C.; Lin, J.K.; Chen, W.J. Tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate suppresses heregulin-beta1-induced fatty acid synthase expression in human breast cancer cells by inhibiting phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade signaling. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55(13), 5030-5037.
[] [PMID: 17539658]
Crous-Masó, J.; Palomeras, S.; Relat, J.; Camó, C.; Martínez-Garza, Ú.; Planas, M.; Feliu, L.; Puig, T. (-)-Epigallocatechin 3-gallate synthetic analogues inhibit fatty acid synthase and show anticancer activity in triple negative breast cancer. Molecules, 2018, 23(5), 123-136.
[] [PMID: 29751678]
Hsu, Y.C.; Liou, Y.M. The anti-cancer effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the signaling pathways associated with membrane receptors in MCF-7 cells. J. Cell. Physiol., 2011, 226(10), 2721-2730.
[] [PMID: 21792929]
Palmer, A.E.; Jin, C.; Reed, J.C.; Tsien, R.Y. Bcl-2-mediated alterations in endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ analyzed with an improved genetically encoded fluorescent sensor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 2004, 101(50), 17404-17409.
[] [PMID: 15585581]
Huang, C.Y.; Han, Z.; Li, X.; Xie, H.H.; Zhu, S.S. Mechanism of EGCG promoting apoptosis of MCF-7 cell line in human breast cancer. Oncol. Lett., 2017, 14(3), 3623-3627.
[] [PMID: 28927122]
Gupta, A.; Zhou, C.Q.; Chellaiah, M.A. Osteopontin and MMP9: associations with VEGF expression/secretion and angiogenesis in PC3 prostate cancer cells. Cancers (Basel), 2013, 5(2), 617-638.
[] [PMID: 24216994]
Chambers, A.F.; Groom, A.C.; MacDonald, I.C. Dissemination and growth of cancer cells in metastatic sites. Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2002, 2(8), 563-572.
[] [PMID: 12154349]
Zhang, Y.; Han, G.; Fan, B.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, X.; Wei, L.; Zhang, J. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate down-regulates VASP expression and inhibits breast cancer cell migration and invasion by attenuating Rac1 activity. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2009, 606(1-3), 172-179.
[] [PMID: 19171136]
Avtanski, D.; Poretsky, L. Phyto-polyphenols as potential inhibitors of breast cancer metastasis. Mol. Med., 2018, 24(1), 29.
[] [PMID: 30134816]
Deb, G.; Thakur, V.S.; Limaye, A.M.; Gupta, S. Epigenetic induction of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-3 by green tea polyphenols in breast cancer cells. Mol. Carcinog., 2015, 54(6), 485-499.
[] [PMID: 24481780]
Farabegoli, F.; Papi, A.; Bartolini, G.; Ostan, R.; Orlandi, M. (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate downregulates Pg-P and BCRP in a tamoxifen resistant MCF-7 cell line. Phytomedicine, 2010, 17(5), 356-362.
[] [PMID: 20149610]
Nowakowska, A.; Tarasiuk, J. Comparative effects of selected plant polyphenols, gallic acid and epigallocatechin gallate, on matrix metalloproteinases activity in multidrug resistant MCF7/DOX breast cancer cells. Acta Biochim. Pol., 2016, 63(3), 571-575.
[] [PMID: 27231728]
Sen, T.; Moulik, S.; Dutta, A.; Choudhury, P.R.; Banerji, A.; Das, S.; Roy, M.; Chatterjee, A. Multifunctional effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in downregulation of gelatinase-A (MMP-2) in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Life Sci., 2009, 84(7-8), 194-204.
[] [PMID: 19105967]
Sen, T.; Chatterjee, A. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates EGF-induced MMP-9 in breast cancer cells: Involvement of integrin receptor α5β1 in the process. Eur. J. Nutr., 2011, 50(6), 465-478.
[] [PMID: 21170718]
Kim, J.; Zhang, X.; Rieger-Christ, K.M.; Summerhayes, I.C.; Wazer, D.E.; Paulson, K.E.; Yee, A.S. Suppression of Wnt signaling by the green tea compound (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) in invasive breast cancer cells. Requirement of the transcriptional repressor HBP1. J. Biol. Chem., 2006, 281(16), 10865-10875.
[] [PMID: 16495219]
Bigelow, R.L.; Cardelli, J.A. The green tea catechins, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), inhibit HGF/Met signaling in immortalized and tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. Oncogene, 2006, 25(13), 1922-1930.
[] [PMID: 16449979]
Slivova, V.; Zaloga, G.; DeMichele, S.J.; Mukerji, P.; Huang, Y.S.; Siddiqui, R.; Harvey, K.; Valachovicova, T.; Sliva, D. Green tea polyphenols modulate secretion of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and inhibit invasive behavior of breast cancer cells. Nutr. Cancer, 2005, 52(1), 66-73.
[] [PMID: 16091006]
Shin, S.; Kim, M.K.; Jung, W.; Chong, Y. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate derivatives reduce the expression of both urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 to inhibit migration, adhesion, and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Phytother. Res., 2018, 32(10), 2086-2096.
[] [PMID: 30009577]
Kushima, Y.; Iida, K.; Nagaoka, Y.; Kawaratani, Y.; Shirahama, T.; Sakaguchi, M.; Baba, K.; Hara, Y.; Uesato, S. Inhibitory effect of (-)-epigallocatechin and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate against heregulin beta1-induced migration/invasion of the MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell line. Biol. Pharm. Bull., 2009, 32(5), 899-904.
[] [PMID: 19420761]
Sen, T.; Dutta, A.; Chatterjee, A. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) downregulates gelatinase-B (MMP-9) by involvement of FAK/ERK/NFkappaB and AP-1 in the human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Anticancer Drugs, 2010, 21(6), 632-644.
[] [PMID: 20527725]
Gu, J.W.; Makey, K.L.; Tucker, K.B.; Chinchar, E.; Mao, X.; Pei, I.; Thomas, E.Y.; Miele, L. EGCG, a major green tea catechin suppresses breast tumor angiogenesis and growth via inhibiting the activation of HIF-1α and NFκB, and VEGF expression. Vasc. Cell, 2013, 5(1), 9.
[] [PMID: 23638734]
Braicu, C.; Gherman, C.D.; Irimie, A.; Berindan-Neagoe, I. Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) inhibits cell proliferation and migratory behaviour of triple negative breast cancer cells. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol., 2013, 13(1), 632-637.
[] [PMID: 23646788]
Rodriguez, S.K.; Guo, W.; Liu, L.; Band, M.A.; Paulson, E.K.; Meydani, M. Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor angiogenic signaling by disrupting the formation of a receptor complex. Int. J. Cancer, 2006, 118(7), 1635-1644.
[] [PMID: 16217757]
Sartippour, M.R.; Heber, D.; Zhang, L.; Beatty, P.; Elashoff, D.; Elashoff, R.; Go, V.L.; Brooks, M.N. Inhibition of fibroblast growth factors by green tea. Int. J. Oncol., 2002, 21(3), 487-491.
[] [PMID: 12168090]
Kaur, S.; Greaves, P.; Cooke, D.N.; Edwards, R.; Steward, W.P.; Gescher, A.J.; Marczylo, T.H. Breast cancer prevention by green tea catechins and black tea theaflavins in the C3(1) SV40 T,t antigen transgenic mouse model is accompanied by increased apoptosis and a decrease in oxidative DNA adducts. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55(9), 3378-3385.
[] [PMID: 17407311]
Whitsett, T.; Carpenter, M.; Lamartiniere, C.A. Resveratrol, but not EGCG, in the diet suppresses DMBA-induced mammary cancer in rats. J. Carcinog., 2006, 5, 15.
[] [PMID: 16700914]
Sartippour, M.R.; Heber, D.; Ma, J.; Lu, Q.; Go, V.L.; Nguyen, M. Green tea and its catechins inhibit breast cancer xenografts. Nutr. Cancer, 2001, 40(2), 149-156.
[] [PMID: 11962250]
Mineva, N.D.; Paulson, K.E.; Naber, S.P.; Yee, A.S.; Sonenshein, G.E. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits stem-like inflammatory breast cancer cells. PLoS One, 2013, 8(9)e73464
[] [PMID: 24039951]
Sang, S.; Lee, M.J.; Hou, Z.; Ho, C.T.; Yang, C.S. Stability of tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and formation of dimers and epimers under common experimental conditions. J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53(24), 9478-9484.
[] [PMID: 16302765]
Schröder, L.; Marahrens, P.; Koch, J.G.; Heidegger, H.; Vilsmeier, T.; Phan-Brehm, T.; Hofmann, S.; Mahner, S.; Jeschke, U.; Richter, D.U. Effects of green tea, matcha tea and their components epigallocatechin gallate and quercetin on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. Oncol. Rep., 2019, 41(1), 387-396.
[PMID: 30320348]
Bimonte, S.; Cascella, M.; Barbieri, A.; Arra, C.; Cuomo, A. Current shreds of evidence on the anticancer role of EGCG in triple negative breast cancer: An update of the current state of knowledge. Infect. Agent. Cancer, 2020, 15, 2.
[] [PMID: 31938038]
Weng, Z.; Greenhaw, J.; Salminen, W.F.; Shi, Q. Mechanisms for epigallocatechin gallate induced inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes in rat liver microsomes. Toxicol. Lett., 2012, 214(3), 328-338.
[] [PMID: 23010222]
Krupkova, O.; Ferguson, S.J.; Wuertz-Kozak, K. Stability of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and its activity in liquid formulations and delivery systems. J. Nutr. Biochem., 2016, 37, 1-12.
[] [PMID: 27770867]
Yadav, R.; Kumar, D.; Kumari, A.; Yadav, S.K. Encapsulation of catechin and epicatechin on BSA NPS improved their stability and antioxidant potential. EXCLI J., 2014, 13, 331-346.
[PMID: 26417264]
Zeng, L.; Holly, J.M.; Perks, C.M. Effects of physiological levels of the green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate on breast cancer cells. Front. Endocrinol. (Lausanne), 2014, 5, 61.
[] [PMID: 24847310]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy