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International Journal of Sensors, Wireless Communications and Control


ISSN (Print): 2210-3279
ISSN (Online): 2210-3287

Research Article

Potnet: Online Potable Water Quality Monitoring Network for Overhead Water Tanks in Rural Water Supply Schemes in India

Author(s): Nagalakshmi Karuppiah*, Vaishnavee Vaithiyanathasamy, Anand Babu Raji and Suresh Valiyurar Murugaiyan

Volume 11 , Issue 8 , 2021

Published on: 10 December, 2020

Page: [872 - 887] Pages: 16

DOI: 10.2174/2210327910666201210150419

Price: $65


Background: Monitoring the quality of potable water is a challenging endeavor due to the significant sources of contaminants, the majority of which are human-induced. Limited access to drinking water owing to acceleration in industrialization, urbanization in consort with growing inhabitants, unprocessed sewage discharge, and toxic industrial effluents causes different life-threatening diseases. Manual water quality monitoring techniques vividly aggravate quality deterioration. Considering the significance of the automatic water quality monitoring system, we need an in-situ, real-time, continuous surveillance system to ascertain the quality of potable water. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) motivated us for a practical water quality monitoring system due to their continuous, real-time, and adaptive infrastructure to provide an early alert in hazardous conditions.

Objective: To design and implement an online potable water quality monitoring network for rural water supply schemes in Nagapattinam district, Tamilnadu, India, to sense physiochemical parameters of potable water such as pH, turbidity, conductivity and temperature.

Methods: Online POTable water quality monitoring NETwork (POTNET) integrates the reimbursements of WSN and different information and communication technologies for data acquisition, data processing, and data visualization. The core hardware of POTNET contains off-the-shelf sensors (i.e., electrodes), a microcontroller, a data transmission system, a customized buoyage, and a sink node. It senses physiochemical parameters of potable water such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, and temperature in a pre-programmed time interval. Furthermore, it enables cloud storage for gathered information and generates an alert to the preregistered user via mobile phones when there is a deviation of quality measures from threshold values.

Results: The system was implemented in three overhead tanks for seven days in order to validate the stability of the buoy and efficiency of energy source, storage, and data transmission. It senses physiochemical parameters of potable water such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, and temperature in its predefined interval of 30 minutes. To check the system accuracy, the measured data values from developed sensors were compared with the observed data values using a commercial multi-parameter water checker, the Horiba® probe. Measured data were sent through the transceivers to the base station for data logging in a suitable format for ease of data visualization and utilization.

Conclusion: Extensive experimental results reveal that our POTNET can be employed for potable water quality surveillance to help consumers or concern authorities to make a sound decision by providing appropriate and real-time data.

Keywords: Key quality indicators, overhead tanks, potable water, real-time monitoring, Ubidots, wireless sensor networks.

Graphical Abstract

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