Background: Despite the great interest and numerous studies, there is currently no unified standard describing the sequential manipulation with cells to obtain exosomes for clinical use.The use of exosomes has become an attractive alternative to cell therapy, since the flexible nature of these biological vesicles allows scientists to manipulate their composition to produce the desired exosomes carrying specific drugs, RNA and proteins. This study aimed to analyse scientific literature on the changes in the functional characteristics of exosomes, depending on the method of manipulation, potentially contributing to the development of negative effects in the treatment of diseases of inflammatory genesis.
Results: The choice of isolation method affects the expressed sets of protein markers, nucleic acids and receptors on microparticles. Various surface receptors present on the exosome membrane can be engineered to target lesions. Exosomes from healthy patients help to reduce inflammation, normalize intercellular communication and have anti-fibrotic, antioxidant, and cytoprotective effects. Exosomes can change the microenvironment, but the microenvironment can also change the composition of exosomes.
Conclusion: Exosomes obtained from sick patients carry markers characteristic of the corresponding disease. Such exosomes can have pro-inflammatory, pro-fibrotic, cytotoxic, and oncogenic properties, and disrupt cellular cooperation. Until now, questions regarding the dose, reactions to repeated administration, and dosage regimes have not been completely resolved.