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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Myocardial Infarction in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus – the Sex-Specific Risk Profile

Author(s): Marija Vavlukis*, Daniela Pop-Gjorcevab, Lidija Poposka, Emilija Sandevska and Sasko Kedev

Volume 27, Issue 29, 2021

Published on: 10 December, 2020

Page: [3221 - 3228] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201210110809

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Accelerated atherosclerosis is widely present in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

Objective: The aim of this review was to analyze the relationship between systemic lupus erythematosus and cardiovascular diseases, with the emphasis on acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: We conducted a literature review through PubMed and Cochrane, using keywords: SLE, atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, prognosis, sex specifics.

Results: Various molecular mechanisms triggered by infection/inflammation are responsible for endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis at an earlier age. A contributing factor is the cumulative effect of traditional cardiovascular risk factors interaction with disease-related characteristics. Myocardial infarction rates are 2- to 10-fold higher compared to the general population. Young women have the highest relative risk, however, men carry at least 3-fold higher risk than women. Coronary involvement varies from normal coronary artery with thrombosis, coronary microartery vasculitis, coronary arteritis, and coronary atherosclerosis. Typical clinical presentation is observed in men and older women, while atypical is more frequent in young women. Treatment is guided by the underlying mechanism, engaging invasive procedures alone, or accompanied with immunosuppressive and/or anti-inflammatory therapy. There are significant gender differences in pathophysiology and clinical presentation. However, they receive the same therapeutic treatments.

Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus is a major contributor to atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic mechanisms involved in the development of myocardial infarction, which should be taken into account during therapeutic treatment. Although systemic lupus erythematosus per se is a “female” disease, males are at increased cardiovascular risk and worse outcomes.

Keywords: Systemic lupus erythematosus, atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, prevalence, outcome, sex-specific risk profile.


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