Background: As a major cause of morbidity and mortality, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are globally increasing. In spite of recent development in the management of cardiovascular complications, CVDs have remained a medical challenge. Numerous conventional drugs are used to play cardioprotective roles; however, they are associated with several side effects. Considering the rich phytochemistry and fewer side effects of herbal medicines, they have gained particular attention to develop novel herbal drugs with cardioprotective potentials. Amongst natural entities, ginger is an extensively used and well-known functional food and condiment, possessing plentiful bioactivities, like anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties in several disorders management.
Objective: The current review deliberated phytochemical properties as well as the ginger/ginger constituents' biological activities and health benefits in several diseases, with particular attention to cardiovascular complications.
Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted using multiple databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, national database (Irandoc and SID), and related articles in terms of the health benefits and cardioprotective effects of ginger/ginger constituents. These data were collected from inception until August 2019.
Results: In recent years, several herbal medicines were used to develop new drugs with more potency and also minor side effects. Amongst natural entities, ginger is used as a traditional medicine in several diseases. The crude extract, along with related pungent active constituents, is mostly attributed to heart health. The cardioprotective effects of ginger are contributed to its cardiotonic, anti- hypertensive, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-platelet effects. The signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms of ginger regarding its cardioprotective effects are also clarified.
Conclusion: This study revealed the biological activities, health benefits, and cardioprotective properties of ginger/ginger constituents along with related mechanisms of action, which gave new insights to show new avenues in the treatment of CVDs.