Background: Etlingera elatior (Ee) contains phytochemical compounds that are rich in antioxidants, which may reduce several biochemical markers of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
Objective: We aimed to study the effect of fresh Etlingera elatior (FEe) and steamed Etlingera elatior (SEe) as a part of rat diet on body weight, serum lipid, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in Wistar rats with MetS induced by a high-fat, high-fructose diet.
Methods: Our research was a true experimental randomized control group design with pre- and post-test. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided randomly into the following four groups: 1) Control, fed standard rat diet during the whole duration of the study, 2) HFFr-Sd, fed high-fat high- -fructose (HFFr) diet for 29 days, followed by 29 days of the standard diet, 3) HFFr-FEe, fed HFFr diet for 29 days, followed by 29 days of a standard diet containing 33.3% FEe, and 4) HFFr-SEe, fed HFFr diet for 29 days, followed by 29 days of a standard diet containing 33.3% SEe. The HFFr diet was given at 15 g/day along with fructose drink (20% pure fructose) at 100 ml/day. The diets in each group after the MetS induction period are referred to as intervention diets. Data at the end of HFFr (pre) and intervention diets (post) were analyzed by paired t-test. The data among groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by post hoc test.
Results: HFFr diet for 29 days induced MetS in Wistar rats fulfilling the criteria of obesity (Lee Index), hypertriglyceridemia, and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Also, there was a significant increase in serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and MDA level (p < 0.05). Feeding a diet containing FEe or SEe can significantly reduce body weight, serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and MDA, and increase HDL-C levels (p < 0.05). The effect of FEe was more pronounced in ameliorating body weight and lipid profile than SEe.
Conclusion: Fresh Ee and Steamed Ee can ameliorate obesity, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in MetS Wistar rats induced by a high-fat, high-fructose diet. It suggests that dietary Ee accounting for one-third of daily standard diet can assist in normalizing some MetS markers in rats.