Background: Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has attracted extensive vitality in numerous research areas such as drug delivery, biomedicine, catalysis, etc., where continuous efforts are being made by scientists and engineers to investigate new dimensions for both technological and industrial advancements. Amongst numerous metallic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) is a novel metal species with low toxicity, higher stability and significant chemical, physical and biological properties.
Methods: In this, various methods for the fabrication of AgNPs are summarized. Importantly, we concentrated on the role of reducing agents of different plant parts, various working conditions, such as AgNO3 concentration, ratio of AgNO3/extract, incubation time, centrifugal conditions, size and shapes.
Results: This study suggested that eco-friendly and non-toxic biomolecules present in the extracts (e.g., leaf, stem and root) of plants are used as reducing and capping agents for silver nanoparticles fabrication. This method of fabrication of silver nanoparticles using plants extracts is comparatively cost-effective and simple. A silver salt is simply reduced by biomolecules present in the extracts of these plants. In this review, we have emphasized the synthesis and antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles using various plant extracts.
Conclusion: Fabrication of silver nanoparticles using plant extracts has an advantage over the other physical methods, as it is safe, eco-friendly and simple to use. Plants have huge potential for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles of wide potential applications with the desired shape and size.