Review Article

A Review on Rheumatoid Arthritis Interventions and Current Developments

Author(s): Nikita Khanna, Anil Kumar* and Sandip V. Pawar*

Volume 22, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 25 November, 2020

Page: [463 - 483] Pages: 21

DOI: 10.2174/1389450121999201125200558

Price: $65

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation, swelling, and joint destruction primarily affecting the peripheral joints. In recent years, RA has become an alarming concern affecting more than 1.5% of the population worldwide. The majority of the drugs in clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis are immunomodulatory. The development of novel drugs for RA is impending and scientists are exploring new strategies through various innovative approaches for RA drug development. Treat-to-target and window of opportunity hypothesis are the new approaches that are used to treat, improve outcomes, and prevent long-term use of ineffective therapy, respectively. Novel therapeutic agents (e.g. GM-CSF inhibitors, Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors) and delivery systems (e.g., Liposomes, Superparamagnetic iron oxide nano particles (SPIONs)) are under investigation for more target based therapy with reduced side effects and toxicity. The new drug discovery and repositioning of previously FDA-approved drugs are also being considered for chronic inflammatory disorder. The review encompasses a vast array of information, including genetics, etiology, clinical symptoms, current treatment, and newer therapeutics approaches, focused on the development of RA interventions. The introduction of the bioinformatics-based approach in RA has also been significantly discussed in the review. This review provides a general understanding of the challenges and uncertainties in the treatment of RA and summarizes the evolving scenario as well as innovative approaches taken into consideration for drug development in rheumatoid arthritis.

Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune disorder, inflammation, treat to target, lifestyle management, bioinformatics.

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