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Current Cardiology Reviews

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-403X
ISSN (Online): 1875-6557

Review Article

Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the Adult: A Bridge to the State of the Art

Author(s): Marco Gennari*, Camilla L’Acqua, Mara Rubino, Marco Agrifoglio, Luca Salvi, Roberto Ceriani, Giancarlo Marenzi, Ivana Marana and Gianluca Polvani

Volume 17, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 24 November, 2020

Article ID: e290421188337 Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1573403X16999201124202144

Price: $65

Abstract

Despite the technological advancements in the last 40 years, conditions such as refractory cardiogenic shock and cardiac arrest still present a very high mortality rate in real-world clinical practice.

In this light, we have reviewed the techniques, indications, contraindications, and results of the socalled Veno-Arterial Extracorporeal Circulatory Membrane Oxygenation (VA-ECMO) in the adult population to evaluate the current results of this temporary cardio-pulmonary support as salvage and/or bridge therapy in the patient suffering from refractory cardiogenic shock or cardio-circulatory arrest.

The results are encouraging, especially in the setting of refractory cardiogenic shock and in-hospital cardiac arrest. Among a selected population, the prompt institution of a VA-ECMO may radically change the prognosis by sustaining vital functions while looking for the leading cause or waiting for the reversal of the temporary cardio-respiratory negative condition.

The future directions aim to standardized and shared protocols, miniaturization of the machines, and possibly the institution of specialized “ECMO teams” for in and the out-of-hospital institution of the tool.

Keywords: ECMO, ECLS, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, myocarditis, cardio-pulmonary support.

Graphical Abstract

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