Evidence on the treatment strategies for the child population with critical conditions due to COVID-19 is scarce and lacks consensus. Thus, this study aimed to critically review non-pharmacological respiratory strategies for this population. Original studies were searched in six databases considering predefined inclusion criteria. Other studies and recommendations were also included after a manual search. Oxygen therapy, invasive (IMV) and non-invasive (NIV) ventilation were the most frequently addressed interventions. In general, the original studies have cited these strategies, but detailed information on the parameters used was not provided. The recommendations provided more detailed data, mainly based on experiences with other acute respiratory syndromes in childhood. In the context of oxygen therapy, the nasal catheter was the most recommended strategy for hypoxemia, followed by the high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC). However, the risks of contamination due to the dispersion of aerosols in the case of the HFNC were pointed out. Lung protective IMV with the use of bacteriological or viral filters was recommended in most documents, and there was great variation in PEEP titration. Alveolar recruitment maneuvers were mentioned in a few recommendations. NIV was not consensual among studies, and when selected, several precautions must be taken to avoid contamination. Airway suctioning with a closed-circuit was recommended to reduce aerosol spread. Information on prone positioning and physiotherapy was even more scarce. In conclusion, oxygen therapy seems to be essential in the treatment of hypoxemia. If necessary, IMV should not be delayed, and protective strategies are encouraged for adequate pulmonary ventilation. Information about techniques that are adjuvant to ventilatory support is superficial and requires further investigation.
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