Generic placeholder image

Current Applied Polymer Science


ISSN (Print): 2452-2716
ISSN (Online): 2452-2724

Research Article

Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of POSS Coated CNTs Reinforced Expancel Foam Core Sandwich Structures

Author(s): Wanda Jones, Bedanga Sapkota, Brian Simpson, Tarig A. Hassan, Shaik Jeelani and Vijaya Rangari*

Volume 4 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 23 November, 2020

Page: [117 - 127] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/2452271604999201123193149

Price: $65


Background: Sandwich structures are progressively being used in various engineering applications due to the superior bending-stiffness-to-weight ratio of these structures. We adapted a novel technique to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) into a sandwich composite structure utilizing a sonochemical and high temperature vacuum assisted resin transfer molding technique.

Objective: The objective of this work was to create a sandwich composite structure comprising of a nanophased foam core and reinforced nanophased face sheets, and to examine the thermal and mechanical properties of the structure. To prepare the sandwich structure, POSS nanoparticles were sonochemically attached to CNTs and dispersed in a high temperature resin system to make the face sheet materials and also coated on expandable thermoplastic microspheres for the fabrication of foam core materials.

Methods: The nanophased foam core was fabricated with POSS infused thermoplastic microspheres (Expancel) using a Tetrahedron MTP-14 programmable compression molder. The reinforced nanophased face sheet was fabricated by infusing POSS coated CNT in epoxy resin and then curing into a compression stainless steel mold.

Results: Thermal analysis of POSS-infused thermoplastic microspheres foam (TMF) showed an increase in thermal stability in both nitrogen and oxygen atmospheres, 19% increase in thermal residue were observed for 4 wt% GI-POSS TMF compared to neat TMF. Quasi-static compression results indicated significant increases (73%) in compressive modulus, and an increase (5%) in compressive strength for the 1 wt% EC-POSS/CNTs resin system. The nanophased sandwich structure constructed from the above resin system and the foam core system displayed an increase (9%) in modulus over the neat sandwich structure.

Conclusion: The incorporation of POSS-nanofillier in the foam core and POSS-coated nanotubes in the face sheet significantly improved the thermal and mechanical properties of sandwich structure. Furthermore, the sandwich structure that was constructed from nanophased resin system showed an increase in modulus, with buckling in the foam core but no visible cracking.

Keywords: Expancel foam, CNTs, POSS, sandwich structure, thermal properties, mechanical properties.

Graphical Abstract
Mallick PK. Fiber-reinforced composites. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. 1993.
Agarwal BD, Broutman LJ. Analysis and performance of fiber composites. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley 1990.
Askeland DR, Pradeep P. The science and engineering of materials. 5th ed. Canada: Thompson 2006.
Olsson KA. Mechanics of sandwich structures: Presented at the 2000 Asme international mechanical engineering congress and exposition, November 5-10, 2000, Orlando, Florida AD-Vol. 62/AMD Vol.245. ASME 2000, pp.1-9.
Osei-Antwi M, De Castro J, Vassilopoulos AP, Keller T. Shear mechanical characterization of balsa wood as core material of composite sandwich panels. Constr Build Mater 2013; 41: 231-8.
Hassanin AH, Hamouda T, Candan Z, Kilic A, Akbulut T. Developing high-performance hybrid green composites. Compos, Part B Eng 2016; 92: 384-94.
Hamouda T, Hassanin AH, Saba N, et al. Evaluation of mechanical and physical properties of hybrid composites from food packaging and textiles wastes. J Polym Environ 2019; 27: 489-97.
Hosur MV, Mohammed AA, Zainuddin S, Jeelani S. Processing of nanoclay filled sandwich composites and their response to low–velocity impact loading. Compos Struct 2008; 82(1): 101-16.
Kabir ME, Saha MC, Jeelani S. Effect of ultrasound sonication in carbon nanofibers/polyurethane foam composite. Mater Sci Eng A 2007; 459(1-2): 111-6.
Zainuddin S, Mahfuz H, Jeelani S. Enhancing fatigue performance of sandwich composites with nanophased core. J Nanomater 2010; 2010: 712731.
Mahfuz H, Uddin MF, Rangari VK, Saha MC, Zainuddin S, Jeelani S. High strain rate response of sandwich composites with nanophased cores. Appl Compos Mater 2005; 12: 193-211.
Mahfuz H, Islam M, Rangari V, Saha M, Jeelani S. Response of sandwich composites with nanophased cores under flexural loading. Compos Part B 2005; 35(6-8): 543-50.
Hamouda T, Hassanin AH, Kilic A, Candan Z, Bodur MS. Hybrid composites from coir fibers reinforced with woven glass fabrics: physical and mechanical evaluation. Polym Compos 2017; 38(10): 2212-20.
Mahfuz H, Rangari V, Islam M, Jeelani S. Fabrication, synthesis and mechanical characterization of nanoparticles infused polyurethane foams. Compos Part A 2004; 35(4): 453-60.
Shifa M, Tariq F, Baloch R. Effect of carbon nanotubes on mechanical properties of honeycomb sandwich panels. Nucleus 2017; 54(1): 1-6.
Rangari V, Hassan T, Zhou Y, Mahfuz H, Jeelani S, Prorok B. Cloisite clay-infused phenolic foam nanocomposites. J Appl Polym Sci 2007; 103(1): 308-14.
Rangari V, Jeelani MI, Zhou Y, Jeelani S. Fabrication and characterization of MWCNT/thermoplastic microsphere nanocomposite foams. Int J Nanosci 2008; 7(2-3): 161-9.
Uddin MN, Gandy HT, Rahman MM, Asmatulu R. Adhesiveless honeycomb sandwich structures of prepreg carbon fiber composites for primary structural applications. Adv Compos Hybrid Mater 2019; 2(2): 339-50.
Di Sciuva M, Sorrenti M. Bending, free vibration and buckling of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced sandwich plates, using the extended refined zigzag theory. Compos Struct 2019; 227: 111324.
Pielichowski K, Njuguna J, Janowski B, Pielichowski J. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxanes (POSS)-containing nanohybrid polymers. In: Abe A, Dusˇek K, Kobayashi S, Eds. Supramolecular polymers polymeric betains oligomers. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag Berlin 2006; pp. 225-96.
Harris PJF. Carbon nanotubes and related structures: new materials for the twenty –first century. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 1999.
Armstrong W, Sapkota B, Mishra SR. Silver decorated carbon nanospheres as effective visible light photocatalyst. MRS Online Proceedings Library 2013; 1509: 938.
Joshi M, Butola BS. Polymeric nanocomposites: polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) as hybrid nanofiller. J Macromol Sci: Part C 2004; 44(4): 389-410.
Jung Y, Sahoo NG, Cho JW. Polymeric nanocomposites of polyurethane block copolymers and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes as crosslinkers. Macromol Rapid Commun 2006; 27(4): 126-31.
Dohi H, Kikuchi S, Kuwahara S, Sugai T, Shinohara H. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of single-wall carbon nanotubes wrapped by glycoconjugate polymer with bioactive sugars. Chem Phys Lett 2006; 428(1-3): 98-101.
Baskaran D, Mays JW, Bratcher MS. Noncovalent and nonspecific molecular interactions of polymers with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Chem Mater 2005; 17(13): 3389-97.
Konyushenko EN, Stejskal J, Trchova M, et al. Multi-wall carbon nanotubes coated with polyaniline. Polymer (Guildf) 2006; 47(16): 5715-23.
Rivin D, Suzin Y. Calorimetric investigation of the interaction of carbon nanotubes with polystyrene. J Polym Sci: Part B 2006; 44(13): 1821-34.
Zhang R, Wang X. One step synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotube/gold nanocomposites for enhancing electrochemical response. Chem Mater 2007; 19(5): 976-8.
Bittencourt C, Felten A, Ghijsen J, et al. Decorating carbon nanotubes with nickel nanoparticles. Chem Phys Lett 2007; 436(4-6): 368-72.
Kong H, Li W, Gao C, et al. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-coated carbon nanotubes: temperature sensitive molecular nanohybrids in water. Macromolecules 2004; 37(18): 6683-6.
Franchini E, Galy J, Gerard JF, Tabuani D, Medici A. Influence of POSS structure on the fire retardant properties of epoxy hybrid networks. Polym Degrad Stabil 2009; 94(10): 1728-36.
Du W, Shan J, Wu Y, Xu R, Yu D. Preparation and characterization of polybenzoxazine/trisilanol polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes composites. Mater Des 2010; 31(4): 1720-5.
Ni C, Ni G, Zhang S, Liu X, Chen M, Liu L. The preparation of inorganic/organic hybrid nanomaterials containing silsesquioxane and its reinforcement for an epoxy resin network. Colloid Polym Sci 2010; 288: 469-77.
Zhang Z, Gu A, Liang G, Ren P, Xie J, Wang X. Thermo-oxygen mechanisms of POSS/epoxy nanocomposites. Polym Degrad Stabil 2009; 92(11): 1986-93.
Qiu Z, Pan H. Preparation, crystallization and hydrolytic degradation of biodegradable poly(L-lactide)/polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 2010; 70(7): 1089-94.
Su CH, Chiu YP, Teng CC, Chiang CL. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of organic–inorganic composites involving epoxy and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) J Polym Res 2010; 17: 673-81.
ASTM Standard E831. Standard test method for linear thermal expansion of solid materials by thermomechanical analysis. West Conshohocken, ASTM International 2003.
ASTM C365 / C365M-16, Standard test method for flatwise compressive properties of sandwich cores. West Conshohocken, ASTM International 2003.
Mao Q, Yang L, Geng X, et al. Interface strain induced hydrophobic facet suppression in cellulose nanocomposite embedded with highly oxidized monolayer graphene oxide. Adv Mater Interfaces 2017; 4(23): 1700995.
Bhoyate S, Kahol PK, Mishra SR, Perez F, Gupta RK. Polystyrene activated linear tube carbon nanofiber for durable and high-performance supercapacitors. Surf Coat Tech 2018; 345: 113-22.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy