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Coronaviruses

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

The Emergence of Novel Coronavirus Disease, Global Treatment Update and its Containment Strategies in Overpopulated Countries: A Review

Author(s): Fazli Azim, Md Shahidul Islam, Hedaeytullah Saju, Kaniz Fatema, Aneela Hayat, Mostofa Kamal, Md Sarfraz, Nawshad Muhammad and Syed A.A. Rizvi*

Volume 2 , Issue 5 , 2021

Published on: 22 November, 2020

Article ID: e060521188250 Pages: 10

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201123101730

Abstract

The ongoing pandemic of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has created a major challenge for the public health worldwide. The reported cases indicate that the outbreak is more widespread than initially assumed. Around 18 million people have been infected with 689,000 reported deaths (August 2020; the number is increasing daily); with a high mutation rate, this virus poses an even more serious threat worldwide. The actual source of COVID-19 is still unclear; even if the initial reports link it to the Chinese seafood wet market in Wuhan, other animals such as birds, snakes, and many small mammals including bats are also linked with this novel coronavirus. The structure of the COVID-19 shows distinctive proteins among which spike proteins have a pivotal role in host cell attachment and virus-cell membrane fusion in order to facilitate virus infection. Currently, no specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is available. Various drug candidates, including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV protease inhibitors, neuraminidase inhibitors, RNA synthesis inhibitors, ACE2 inhibitors and lungs supportive therapy, are under trials. Cell-based therapy also appeared with remarkable treatment possibilities. In this article, we endeavored to succinctly cover the current and available treatment options, including pharmaceuticals, cell-based therapy, and traditional medicine. We also focused on the extent of damages by this novel coronavirus in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh; the strategies adopted and the research activities initiated so far by these densely populated countries (neighboring China) are explained in this review.

Keywords: SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, antivirals, cell-based therapy, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), traditional chinese medicine (TCM).

Graphical Abstract
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