Tumor-derived exosomes contain biological contents such as proteins, lipids, RNA (miRNAs, mRNAs, lncRNA), and DNA for intracellular communication. Meanwhile, studies have shown the role of exosomes in cancer progression, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Furthermore, tumor exosomes have received growing attention due to their potential as novel therapeutic protocols for the treatment of cancers. Adenosine nucleoside, which is a derivative of ATP, is highly elevated in the tumor microenvironment by CD39 and CD73 enzymatic activity. Recently, it is distinguished that cancer cell-derived exosomes carry CD39 and CD73 on their surface and may contribute to rising adenosine levels in the tumor microenvironment. In this review, we summarize the evidence of CD39/CD73-bearing exosomes and their role in cancer development, progression, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis and their application in the selection of the appropriate strategy to treat different types of cancer.