Background: Studies suggest that cytokines are involved in the development of both inflammatory disorders and vascular diseases.
Objective: The changes in transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), interleukin 6 (IL6), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and interferon γ (IFNγ) with the progression of the thromboangiitis obliterans (TAO) symptoms were investigated in this research.
Methods: This study included 80 patients with TAO, who were selected from the Vascular and Endovascular Research Center in Alavi Hospital, from the year 2012 to 2016. They were then categorized into three groups: Mild (migratory thrombophlebitis, cold sensitivity or Raynaud's phenomenon, and skin discoloration), moderate (chronic ulcers, claudication, and burning pain of the feet at night), and severe (pain at rest and spontaneous gangrene) symptoms. The serum levels of TGFβ, IL6, TNFα, and IFNγwere determined by the ELISA method and compared among the groups.
Results: The first three predominant symptoms were pulse disorder (n = 76, 95.00%), cold intolerance (n = 61, 76.25%), and claudication (n = 59, 73.75%). A comparison of the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) revealed that both TGFβ and IL6 were dysregulated as the severity of the symptoms increased from the moderate to the severe stages; however, such changes were not significant (p > 0.05). In the multiple logistic regression model, increased TNFα levels were seen in the presence of moderate symptoms as compared to the severe ones (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: It could be concluded that TNFα, as part of the defining cytokineproduction profile of T helper cells, can be significantly involved in the progression of TAO from the moderate to the severe stages.