Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 induced protein 1 (MCPIP1), one of the MCPIP family members, is characterized by the presence of both C-x8-C-x5-C-x3-H (CCCH)- type zinc finger and PilT-N-terminal domains. As a potent regulator of innate immunity, MCPIP1 exerts anti-inflammatory effects through its ribonuclease (RNase) and deubiquitinating enzyme activities to degrade cytokine mRNAs and inhibit nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), respectively. MCPIP1 is expressed not only in immune cells but also in many other cell types, including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Increasing evidence indicates that MCPIP1 plays a role in the regulation of cardiac functions and is involved in the processes of vascular diseases, such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and atherosclerosis. To better understand the emerging roles of MCPIP1 in the cardiovascular system, we reviewed the current literature with respect to MCPIP1 functions and discussed its association with the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and the implication as a therapeutic target.