Generic placeholder image

Current Immunology Reviews (Discontinued)

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1573-3955
ISSN (Online): 1875-631X

Perspective Article

Thymosin α1; Potential Therapeutic Implications of an Immunoregulatory Drug in the Treatment of Lymphocytopenia Associated with COVID-19

Author(s): Milad Shirvaliloo*

Volume 16, Issue 1, 2020

Page: [55 - 57] Pages: 3

DOI: 10.2174/1573395516999201111163304

Price: $65

Abstract

It is not unbeknownst to us that since the very onset of the COVID-19 outbreak, many patients from different age groups have suffered greatly, and in a remarkable number of cases, succumbed to their untimely demise as a result of infection with the novel coronavirus or SARS-CoV- -2. The elderly are perhaps the most vulnerable community, who stand at the pinnacle of morbidity and mortality rates due to contracting severe forms of COVID-19. Hopefully, based on the recent findings and the present evidence, there might be a number of medications that would possibly be of great prophylactic and therapeutic value to the elderly patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to an interventional study, Thymosin α1 is arguably one such medication that has recently been indicated to be an effective therapeutic agent for inpatient management of lymphocytopenia and T cell exhaustion caused by COVID-19.

Keywords: Thymosin α1, lymphocytopenia, T cells, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, immunoregulatory drug.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Wherry EJ. T cell exhaustion. Nat Immunol 2011; 12(6): 492-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2035] [PMID: 21739672]
[2]
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5] [PMID: 31986264]
[3]
Liu K, Chen Y, Lin R, Han K. Clinical features of COVID-19 in elderly patients: A comparison with young and middle-aged patients. J Infect 2020; 80(6): e14-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2020.03.005] [PMID: 32171866]
[4]
Li T, Wu N, Dai Y, et al. Reduced thymic output is a major mechanism of immune reconstitution failure in HIV-infected patients after long-term antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(9): 944-51.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/cir552] [PMID: 21960716]
[5]
Yager EJ, Ahmed M, Lanzer K, Randall TD, Woodland DL, Blackman MA. Age-associated decline in T cell repertoire diversity leads to holes in the repertoire and impaired immunity to influenza virus. J Exp Med 2008; 205(3): 711-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20071140] [PMID: 18332179]
[6]
Garaci E. From thymus to cystic fibrosis: the amazing life of thymosin alpha 1. Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 2018; 18(1): 9-11.
[7]
Matteucci C, Grelli S, Balestrieri E, et al. Thymosin alpha 1 and HIV-1: recent advances and future perspectives. Future Microbiol 2017; 12(2): 141-55.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2016-0125] [PMID: 28106477]
[8]
Liu Y, Pang Y, Hu Z, et al. Thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1) reduces the mortality of severe COVID-19 by restoration of lymphocytopenia and reversion of exhausted T cells. Clin Infect Dis 2020; ciaa630.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa630] [PMID: 32442287]
[9]
McLane LM, Abdel-Hakeem MS, Wherry EJ. CD8 T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection and cancer. Annu Rev Immunol 2019; 37(1): 457-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev-immunol-041015-055318] [PMID: 30676822]
[10]
Serana F, Chiarini M, Zanotti C, et al. Use of V(D)J recombination excision circles to identify T- and B-cell defects and to monitor the treatment in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies. J Transl Med 2013; 11(1): 119.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-11-119] [PMID: 23656963]
[11]
Ji SM, Li LS, Sun QQ, Chen JS, Sha GZ, Liu ZH. Immunoregulation of thymosin α 1 treatment of cytomegalovirus infection accompanied with acute respiratory distress syndrome after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2007; 39(1): 115-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transproceed.2006.10.005] [PMID: 17275486]
[12]
Sheervalilou R, Shirvaliloo M, Dadashzadeh N, et al. COVID-19 under spotlight: A close look at the origin, transmission, diagnosis, and treatment of the 2019-nCoV disease. J Cell Physiol 2020; 235(12): 8873-924.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.29735] [PMID: 32452539]
[13]
Shimabukuro-Vornhagen A, Gödel P, Subklewe M, et al. Cytokine release syndrome. J Immunother Cancer 2018; 6(1): 56.
[14]
Liu D, Yu Z, Yin J, et al. Effect of ulinastatin combined with thymosin alpha1 on sepsis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Chinese and Indian patients. J Crit Care 2017; 39: 259-66.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2016.12.013] [PMID: 28069319]
[15]
Jia Z, Feng Z, Tian R, Wang Q, Wang L. Thymosin α1 plus routine treatment inhibit inflammatory reaction and improve the quality of life in AECOPD patients. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 2015; 37(4): 388-92.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/08923973.2015.1069837] [PMID: 26250523]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy