Background: It is estimated that the average time between the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the patient’s death is 5-9 years. Therefore, both the initial phase of the disease and the preclinical state can be included in the critical period in disease diagnosis. Accordingly, huge progress has recently been observed in biomarker research to identify risk factors for dementia in older people with normal cognitive functions and mild cognitive impairments.
Methods: Electrochemical biosensors are excellent analytical tools that are used in the detection of AD biomarkers as they are easy to use, portable, and can do analysis in real time.
Results: This review presents the analytical techniques currently used to determine AD biomarkers in terms of their advantages and disadvantages; the most important clinical biomarkers of AD and their role in the disease. All recently used biorecognition molecules in electrochemical biosensor development, i.e., receptor protein, antibodies, aptamers and nucleic acids, are summarized for the first time. Novel electrochemical biosensors for AD biomarker detection, as ideal analytical platforms for point-of-care diagnostics, are also reviewed.
Conclusion: The article focuses on various strategies of biosensor chemical surface modifications to immobilize biorecognition molecules, enabling specific, quantitative AD biomarker detection in synthetic and clinical samples. In addition, this is the first review that presents innovative single-platform systems for simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers and other important AD-associated biological species based on electrochemical techniques. The importance of these platforms in disease diagnosis is discussed.