Background & Objective: A facile and efficient method for the synthesis of novel derivatives of FQ citrate conjugates with 1,2,4-triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazole scaffolds 8-11 using conventional, as well as microwave irradiation methods, was reported. Based on these original building blocks, the new derivatives of 3, 7-disubstituted fluoroquinolones bearing the oxadiazolyl-triazole groups were obtained. These invaluable derivatives are of great interest in medicinal and pharmaceutical studies because of their important biological properties.
Methods: All the reactions were examined under conventional as well as microwave mediated conditions. The structures of obtained compounds were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR HRMS spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds were screened against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungal stains by the agar well diffusion method. Cytotoxic assay of the title compounds was evaluated against cervical carcinoma cell line (HeLa) by using the MTT assay. The crystal structure of the Quinolone-DNA cleavage complex of type IV topoisomerase from S. pneumoniae (PDB ID: 3RAE) complex was obtained from the Protein Database (PDB, http:// www.rcsb.org). Molecular properties prediction-drug likeness was studied by Molinspiration and Molsoft software, while lipophilicity and solubility parameters were studied using the Osiris program.
Results: A novel approach for the synthesis of benzylthio-1,2,4-triazole and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles core with regioisomeric norfloxacin citrate conjugates was developed. Among the title compounds, 11b, 10a reveal pronounced activity against S. pneumoniae with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 0.89, 0.96 mg/mL and MBCs of 2.95, 2.80 mg/mL, respectively. Minimum Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) has been determined for each compound against two fungal strains. Compound 11b showed maximum anti-cancer activity against HeLa cell line with IC50 value 11.3 ± 0.41 comparable to standard drug DXN. For binding mode, active site residues and docking energies (ΔG =-7.9 Kcal/mol) for ligand 9b exhibited the highest hydrogen bonding (3.59274 A˚), Pi– Alkyl (5.14468 A˚) interactions with amino acid LEU479 of 3RAE protein. The compounds following the Lipinski ‘Rule of five’ were synthesized for antimicrobial and anti-cancer screening as oral bioavailable drugs/leads. Maximum drug likeness model score 1.52, 1.41 was found for compounds 10d, 11b.
Conclusion: The present work, through simple synthetic approaches, led to the development of novel hybrids of fluoroquinolone containing citrate-triazole-oxadiazole pharmacophores that exhibited remarkable biological activities against different microorganisms and cell lines. The compounds showed suitable druglike properties and are expected to present good bioavailability profile. An efficient combination of molecular modeling and biological activity provided an insight into QSAR guidelines that could aid in further development and optimization of the norfloxacin derivatives.