The prevalence of periodontitis is around 20-50% in the global population. If it is not treated, it can cause tooth loss. Periodontal treatment aims at preserving the patient's teeth from various damages, including infection control and restoring lost periodontal tissue. The periodontium has great biological regenerative potential, and several biomaterials can be used to improve the outcome of periodontal treatment. To achieve the goal of periodontal tissue regeneration, numerous studies have used fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) to stimulate the regeneration of both the soft tissue and bone.
FGF2 induced a significant increment in the percentage of bone fill, bone mineral levels of the defect sites, length of the regenerated periodontal ligament, angiogenesis, connective tissue formation on the root surface, formation of dense fibers bound to the alveolar bone and newly synthesized cementum in teeth. This review will open further avenues to better understand the FGF2 therapy for periodontal regeneration.