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Current Pharmaceutical Design

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1381-6128
ISSN (Online): 1873-4286

Review Article

Steroid-resistant Nephrotic Syndrome in Children: A Mini-review on Genetic Mechanisms, Predictive Biomarkers and Pharmacotherapy Strategies

Author(s): Hong-Li Guo, Ling Li, Ze-Yue Xu, Xia Jing, Ying Xia, Jin-Chun Qiu, Xing Ji, Feng Chen*, Jing Xu* and Fei Zhao*

Volume 27 , Issue 2 , 2021

Published on: 02 November, 2020

Page: [319 - 329] Pages: 11

DOI: 10.2174/1381612826666201102104412

Price: $65

Abstract

Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) constitutes the second most frequent cause of chronic kidney disease in childhood. The etiology of SRNS remains largely unknown and no standardized treatment exists. Recent advances in genomics have helped to build understanding of the molecular mechanisms and pathogenesis of the disease. The genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding proteins which are involved in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of glucocorticoids (GCs) partially account for the different responses between patients with nephrotic syndrome. More importantly, single-gene causation in podocytes-associated proteins was found in approximately 30% of SRNS patients. Some potential biomarkers have been tested for their abilities to discriminate against pediatric patients who are sensitive to GCs treatment and patients who are resistant to the same therapy. This article reviews the recent findings on genetic mechanisms, predictive biomarkers and current therapies for SRNS with the goal to improve the management of children with this syndrome.

Keywords: Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome, glucocorticoids, glucocorticoid receptors, monogenetic mutations, podocytes, biomarkers, management.

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