Background and Aims: Following a fat-rich diet, alterations in gut microbiota contribute to enhanced gut permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, and low grade inflammation–associated metabolic disorders. To better understand whether commensal bifidobacteria influence the expression of key metaflammation-related biomarkers (chemerin, MCP-1, PEDF) and modulate the pro-inflammatory bacteria- and lipid–coupled intracellular signaling pathways, we aimed at i) investigating the influence of the establishment of microbial signaling molecules-based cell-cell contacts on the involved intercellular communication between enterocytes, immune cells, and adipocytes, and ii) assessing their inflammatory mediators’ expression profiles within an inflamed adipose tissue model.
Material and Methods: Bifidobacterium animalis R101-8 and Escherichia coli TG1, respectively, were added to the apical side of a triple co-culture model consisting of intestinal epithelial HT-29/B6 cell line, human monocyte-derived macrophage cells, and adipose-derived stem cell line in the absence or presence of LPS or palmitic acid. mRNA expression levels of key lipid metabolism genes HILPDA, MCP-1/CCL2, RARRES2, SCD, SFRP2 and TLR4 were determined using TaqMan qRT-PCR. Protein expression levels of cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), key metaflammation-related biomarkers including adipokines (chemerin and PEDF), chemokine (MCP- 1) as well as cellular triglycerides were assessed by cell-based ELISA, while those of p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p38, NF-κB, p-IκBα, pc-Fos, pc-Jun, and TLR4 were assessed by Western blotting.
Results: B. animalis R101-8 inhibited LPS- and palmitic acid-induced protein expression of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α concomitant with decreases in chemerin, MCP-1, PEDF, and cellular triglycerides, and blocked NF-kB and AP-1 activation pathway through inhibition of p- IκBα, pc-Jun, and pc-Fos phosphorylation. B. animalis R101-8 downregulated mRNA and protein levels of HILPDA, MCP-1/CCL2, RARRES2, SCD and SFRP2 and TLR4 following exposure to LPS and palmitic acid.
Conclusion: B. animalis R101-8 improves biomarkers of metaflammation through at least two molecular/signaling mechanisms triggered by pro-inflammatory bacteria/lipids. First, B. animalis R101-8 modulates the coupled intracellular signaling pathways via metabolizing saturated fatty acids and reducing available bioactive palmitic acid. Second, it inhibits NF-kB’s and AP-1’s transcriptional activities, resulting in the reduction of pro-inflammatory markers. Thus, the molecular basis may be formed by which commensal bifidobacteria improve intrinsic cellular tolerance against excess pro-inflammatory lipids and participate in homeostatic regulation of metabolic processes in vivo.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2011.153] [PMID: 21829158]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2018.00207] [PMID: 30123797]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2017.359] [PMID: 28771223]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2119/molmed.2012.00156] [PMID: 22714715]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2010.212] [PMID: 20938440]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3618-4] [PMID: 25994074]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1574] [PMID: 22315307]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-3555] [PMID: 24297795]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ibd.21057] [PMID: 19714766]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2008.02.001] [PMID: 18950596]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-018-0220-0] [PMID: 30262813]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.12938/bmfh.2016-002] [PMID: 27867803]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124549] [PMID: 25906317]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2019.11.009] [PMID: 31810825]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00541.x] [PMID: 11533143]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2010.03.014] [PMID: 20381647]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017834] [PMID: 21483855]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.03.026] [PMID: 30943403]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-0436.2005.07301003.x] [PMID: 15733065]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0701124] [PMID: 9154331]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1312937110] [PMID: 24127592]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11030639] [PMID: 30884788]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059370] [PMID: 23555025]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsim.2005.03.010] [PMID: 15939578]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01084] [PMID: 31178859]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-09037-9] [PMID: 30867416]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01323-17] [PMID: 28778891]
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2018.09.032] [PMID: 30287404]