Generic placeholder image



ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Perspective Article

Combination of Hydroxychloroquine, Melatonin and Mercaptopurine as a Possible Intervention for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Novel COVID-19 Infection

Author(s): Gyan Vardhan, Vikas Kumar, Megha Agrawal and Puneet Dhamija*

Volume 2, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 16 October, 2020

Page: [415 - 418] Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201016154957


Background: COVID-19 has been declared as a pandemic recently and has caused many deaths worldwide. Till date, no effective drug or vaccine is available against SARS-CoV-2. There is an urgent need to find effective alternative preventive and treatment strategies to deal with the SARS-CoV- 2 outbreak.

Objective: This communication proposes a new potential drug combination (repurposed) for prophylaxis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2.

Methods and Materials: We performed a brief review of literature on a combination of Hydroxychloroquine, Melatonin and Mercaptopurine for prophylaxis and treatment of Novel COVID-19 infection and also assessed their possible mechanism of action against SARS-CoV-2.

Observation: Proposed combination seems to be safe, and the target is unlikely to develop resistance to this combination.

Conclusion: This scientific review proposes potential candidate repurposed drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2.

Keywords: Novel COVID-19, Hydroxychloroquine, Melatonin, Mercaptopurine, coronavirus, Prophylaxis.

Zumla A, Chan JFW, Azhar EI, Hui DSC, Yuen K-Y. Coronaviruses - drug discovery and therapeutic options. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2016; 15(5): 327-47.
[] [PMID: 26868298]
WHO. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV) [Internet] [Last accessed 2020 May 17]. Available from:
Giri R, Bhardwaj T, Shegane M, et al. Understanding COVID-19 via comparative analysis of dark proteomes of SARS-CoV-2, human SARS and bat SARS-like coronaviruses. Cell Mol Life Sci 2020; 78: 1-34.
[] [PMID: 32712910]
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet Lond Engl 2020; 15;395(10223): 507-13.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med [Internet] 2020. cited 2020 Mar 23. Available from:
Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, et al. Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Cell Discov 2020; 6: 14.
Hattori A, Migitaka H, Iigo M, et al. Identification of melatonin in plants and its effects on plasma melatonin levels and binding to melatonin receptors in vertebrates. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1995; 35(3): 627-34.
[PMID: 7773197]
Boga JA, Coto-Montes A, Rosales-Corral SA, Tan D-X, Reiter RJ. Beneficial actions of melatonin in the management of viral infections: a new use for this “molecular handyman”? Rev Med Virol 2012; 22(5): 323-38.
[] [PMID: 22511571]
Ben-Nathan D, Maestroni GJ, Lustig S, Conti A. Protective effects of melatonin in mice infected with encephalitis viruses. Arch Virol 1995; 140(2): 223-30.
[] [PMID: 7710351]
Valero N, Bonilla E, Pons H, et al. Melatonin induces changes to serum cytokines in mice infected with the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2002; 96(3): 348-51.
[] [PMID: 12174794]
Galijasevic S, Abdulhamid I, Abu-Soud HM. Melatonin is a potent inhibitor for myeloperoxidase. Biochemistry 2008; 47(8): 2668-77.
[] [PMID: 18237195]
Savarino A, Boelaert JR, Cassone A, Majori G, Cauda R. Effects of chloroquine on viral infections: an old drug against today’s diseases? Lancet Infect Dis 2003; 3(11): 722-7.
[] [PMID: 14592603]
Chen X, Chou CY, Chang GG. Thiopurine analogue inhibitors of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus papain-like protease, a deubiquitinating and deISGylating enzyme. Antivir Chem Chemother 2009; 19(4): 151-6.
[] [PMID: 19374142]
Silvestri M, Rossi GA. Melatonin: its possible role in the management of viral infections--a brief review. Ital J Pediatr 2013; 39(1): 61.
[] [PMID: 24090288]
Chen H, Wurm T, Britton P, Brooks G, Hiscox JA. Interaction of the coronavirus nucleoprotein with nucleolar antigens and the host cell. J Virol 2002; 76(10): 5233-50.
[] [PMID: 11967337]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy