Background: Nature had already engineered various types of nanoparticles (NPs), especially viruses, which can deliver their cargo to the host/targeted cells. The ability to selectively target specific cells offers a significant advantage over the conventional approach. Numerous organic NPs, including native protein cages, virus-like particles, polymeric saccharides, and liposomes, have been used for the preparation of nanoparticles. Such nanomaterials have demonstrated better performance as well as improved biocompatibility, devoid of side effects, and stable without any deterioration.
Objective: This review discusses current clinical and scientific research on naturally occurring nanomaterials. It also illustrates and updates the tailor-made approaches for selective delivery and targeted medications that require a high-affinity interconnection to the targeted cells.
Methods: A comprehensive search was performed using keywords for viral nanoparticles, viral particles for drug delivery, viral nanoparticles for molecular imaging, theranostics applications of viral nanoparticles and plant viruses in nanomedicine. We searched on Google Scholar, PubMed, Springer, Medline, and Elsevier from 2000 till date and by the bibliographic review of all identified articles.
Results: The findings demonstrated that structures dependent on nanomaterials might have potential applications in diagnostics, cell marking, comparing agents (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging), and antimicrobial drugs, as well as drug delivery structures. However, measures should be taken in order to prevent or mitigate, in pharmaceutical or medical applications, the toxic impact or incompatibility of nanoparticle-based structures with biological systems.
Conclusion: The review provided an overview of the latest advances in nanotechnology, outlining the difficulties and the advantages of in vivo and in vitro structures that are focused on a specific subset of the natural nanomaterials.
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