Generic placeholder image

Coronaviruses

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article (Mini-Review)

Impact of BCG Vaccine Against the Pandemic of Corona (COVID-19): A Review

Author(s): Rana Mazumder and Subhabrota Majumdar*

Volume 2 , Issue 4 , 2021

Published on: 05 October, 2020

Page: [492 - 495] Pages: 4

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999201005212124

Abstract

The explanations behind the wide spreadability of coronavirus sickness (COVID-19) are not known properly in this world. Several clinical investigations have indicated that the BCG antibody impacts on the immune system and human sicknesses which take part in the host system to such an extent that numerous types of viral diseases are extensively diminished or reduced. Subsequently, it was also observed in different studies that the recurrence and seriousness of numerous microbial or viral diseases, including COVID-19, will be lower in few countries where BCG Immunization programs are carried out. Few clinical investigations proposed by the epidemiological data have shown that the BCG antibody has a valuable impact in the treatment of COVID-19. So the BCG immunization may be found valuable in the coming months, particularly in the countries, where mass BCG immunization is done. Further thorough BCG immunization clinical trial is required to establish the above findings and its clinical significance. In future, this investigation will concentrate on the BCG vaccine and it may forestall the event of SARS-CoV-2 contamination and its succession in the large population.

Keywords: Coronavirus, BCG vaccination, immunization, epidemiological, pandemic, COVID-19.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Pederson T. Where are we, a century after the “Spanish Flu”? FASEB J 2018; 32(5): 2317-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.180501ufm] [PMID: 29698119]
[2]
Giulio M, Maggioni D, Montroni I, et al. Being a doctor will never be the same after the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Med 2020; 133(6): 652.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.03.003] [PMID: 32240630]
[3]
COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition. Global coalition to accelerate COVID-19 clinical research in resource-limited settings. Lancet 2020; 395(10233): 1322-5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30798-4] [PMID: 32247324]
[4]
Miller A, Reandelar MJ, Fasciglione K, Roumenova V, Li Y, Otazu GH. Correlation between universal BCG vaccination policy and reduced morbidity and mortality for COVID-19: an epidemiological study. Medrxiv 2020.
[5]
Hegarty PK, Kamat AM, Zafirakis H, Dinardo A. BCG vaccination may be protective against Covid-19. URO today 2020; 3: 1-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.35948.10880]
[6]
Fine PEM, Carneiro IAM, Milstien JB, Clements CJ. World health organization issues relating to the use of BCG in immunization programmes: a discussion document. Geneva: World Health Organization 1999. Available from: https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/66120
[7]
Salmon C, Conus F, Parent ME, Benedetti A, Rousseau MC. Association between Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination and lymphoma risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol 2020; 65101696
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canep.2020.101696] [PMID: 32203929]
[8]
Houghton BB, Chalasani V, Hayne D, et al. Intravesical chemotherapy plus bacilleCalmette-Guérin in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis. BJU Int 2013; 111(6): 977-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2012.11390.x] [PMID: 23253618]
[9]
Fuge O, Vasdev N, Allchorne P, Green JS. Immunotherapy for bladder cancer. Res Rep Urol 2015; 7: 65-79.
[PMID: 26000263]
[10]
Moorlag SJCFM, Arts RJW, van Crevel R, Netea MG. Non-specific effects of BCG vaccine on viral infections. Clin Microbiol Infect 2019; 25(12): 1473-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2019.04.020] [PMID: 31055165]
[11]
Sharma A, Kumar Sharma S, Shi Y, et al. BCG vaccination policy and preventive chloroquine usage: do they have an impact on COVID-19 pandemic? Cell Death Dis 2020; 11(7): 516.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2720-9] [PMID: 32641762]
[12]
Curtis N. BCG vaccination to protect healthcare workers against COVID-19 Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04327206
[13]
Podder I, Bhattacharya S, Mishra V, et al. Immunotherapy in viral warts with intradermal BacillusCalmette-Guerin vaccine versus intradermal tuberculin purified protein derivative: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing effectiveness and safety in a tertiary care center in Eastern India. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2017; 83(3): 411.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0378-6323.193623] [PMID: 27852999]
[14]
Douglas JM, Vontver LA, Stamm WE, et al. Ineffectiveness and toxicity of BCG vaccine for the prevention of recurrent genital herpes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1985; 27(2): 203-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.27.2.203] [PMID: 3885848]
[15]
Hippmann G, Wekkeli M, Rosenkranz AR, Jarisch R, Götz M. Nonspecific immune stimulation with BCG in Herpes simplex recidivans. Follow-up 5 to 10 years after BCG vaccination. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1992; 104(7): 200-4.
[PMID: 1523844]
[16]
Simpson CR, Beever D, Challen K, et al. NIHR hibernated influenza studies collaborative group. The UK’s pandemic influenza research portfolio: a model for future research on emerging infections. Lancet Infect Dis 2019; 19(8): e295-300.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30786-2] [PMID: 31006605]
[17]
Panovska-Griffiths J, Grieco L, van Leeuwen E, Baguelin M, Pebody R, Utley M. Are we prepared for the next influenza pandemic? Lessons from modelling different preparedness policies against four pandemic scenarios. J Theor Biol 2019; 481: 223-32.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.05.003] [PMID: 31059716]
[18]
Cakir Z, Savas HB. A mathematical modelling approach in the spread of the novel 2019 coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic. Electron J Gen Med 2020; 14: 4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/7861]
[19]
Aaby P, Kollmann TR, Benn CS. Nonspecific effects of neonatal and infant vaccination: public-health, immunological and conceptual challenges. Nat Immunol 2014; 15(10): 895-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2961] [PMID: 25232810]
[20]
Roth A, Gustafson P, Nhaga A, et al. BCG vaccination scar associated with better childhood survival in Guinea-Bissau. Int J Epidemiol 2005; 34(3): 540-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyh392] [PMID: 15659474]
[21]
Hollm-Delgado MG, Stuart EA, Black RE. Acute lower respiratory infection among BacilleCalmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated children. Pediatrics 2014; 133(1): e73-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2218] [PMID: 24379224]
[22]
de Castro MJ, Pardo-Seco J, Martinón-Torres F. Nonspecific (Heterologous) protection of neonatal bcg vaccination against hospitalization due to respiratory infection and sepsis. Clin Infect Dis 2015; 60(11): 1611-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ144] [PMID: 25725054]
[23]
Wardhana, Datau EA, Sultana A, Mandang VV, Jim E. The efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccinations for the prevention of acute upper respiratory tract infection in the elderly. Acta Med Indones 2011; 43(3): 185-90.
[PMID: 21979284]
[24]
Higgins JPT, Soares-Weiser K, Reingold A. Systematic review of the non-specific effects of BCG, DTP and measles containing vaccines. Available from: https://www.who.int/immunization/sage/meetings/2014/april/3_NSE_Epidemiology_review_Report_to_SAGE_14_Mar_FINAL.pdf
[25]
Jensen KJ, Larsen N, Biering-Sørensen S, et al. Heterologous immunological effects of early BCG vaccination in low-birth-weight infants in Guinea-Bissau: a randomized-controlled trial. J Infect Dis 2015; 211(6): 956-67.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu508] [PMID: 25210141]
[26]
Netea MG, Quintin J, van der Meer JW. Trained immunity: a memory for innate host defense. Cell Host Microbe 2011; 9(5): 355-61.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2011.04.006] [PMID: 21575907]
[27]
Ryall JG, Cliff T, Dalton S, Sartorelli V. Metabolic reprogramming of stem cell epigenetics. Cell Stem Cell 2015; 17(6): 651-62.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2015.11.012] [PMID: 26637942]
[28]
Arts RJW, Moorlag SJCFM, Novakovic B, et al. BCG Vaccination Protects against experimental viral infection in humans through the induction of cytokines associated with trained immunity. Cell Host Microbe 2018; 23(1): 89-100.e5.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2017.12.010] [PMID: 29324233]
[29]
Szigeti R, Kellermayer D, Trakimas G, Kellermayer R. BCG epidemiology supports its protection against COVID-19? A word of caution. PLoS ONE 2020; 15(10)e0240203
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0240203]
[30]
Bonten MJM, Utrecht UMC. Reducing health care workers absenteeism in covid-19 pandemic through BCG vaccine Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04328441
[31]
Morawska L, Cao J. Airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2: The world should face the reality. Environ Int 2020; 139105730
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105730] [PMID: 32294574]
[32]
Curtis N, Sparrow A, Ghebreyesus TA, Netea MG. Considering BCG vaccination to reduce the impact of COVID-19. Lancet 2020; 395(10236): 1545-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31025-4] [PMID: 32359402]
[33]
Arts RJW, Netea MG. Epigenetic rewiring of monocytes in BCG vaccination. In: Faustman D, Ed.The value of bcg and tnf in autoimmunity. 2nd ed. Academic Press 2018; pp. 109-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-814603-3.00008-2]
[34]
Kaufmann SHE. Vaccination against tuberculosis: revamping bcg by molecular genetics guided by immunology. Front Immunol 2020; 11: 316.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00316]
[35]
Clinicaltrial.gov. Reducing Health Care Workers Absenteeism in COVID-19 pandemic through BCG vaccine (BCG-CORONA). Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04328441
[36]
Clinicaltrial.gov. BCG Vaccination to protect healthcare workers against COVID-19 (BRACE). Available from: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04327206
[37]
Sharquie KE, Noaimi AA, Shwail ER. Oral zinc sulphate in treatment of alopecia areata (Double Blind; Cross Over Study). J ClinExperimDermatResearc 2012; 3: 150.
[38]
Sharquie KE, Najim RA, Al-Dori WS, Al-Hayani RK. Oral zinc sulfate in the treatment of Behcet’s disease: a double blind cross-over study. J Dermatol 2006; 33(8): 541-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2006.00128.x] [PMID: 16923135]
[39]
Gursel M, Gursel I. Is Global BCG vaccination coverage relevant to the progression of sars-cov-2 pandemic? Med Hypotheses 2020; 109: 707.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.109707]
[40]
Covián C, Fernández-Fierro A, Retamal-Díaz A, et al. BCG-induced cross-protection and development of trained immunity: implication for vaccine design. Front Immunol 2019; 10: 2806.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02806] [PMID: 31849980]
[41]
Sharquie IK. BCG is a good immunotherapeutic agent for viral and autoimmune diseases: Is it a new weapon against coronavirus (COVID-19)? Electron J Gen Med 2020; 17(6): 229.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/7892]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy