Generic placeholder image

Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1574-891X
ISSN (Online): 2212-4071

Review Article

Recent Patents on Phytoconstituents-based Formulations for the Treatment of Acne Infection: A Review

Author(s): Vandana Singh, Ravinder Verma, Deepak Kaushik and Vineet Mittal*

Volume 15 , Issue 2 , 2020

Page: [119 - 136] Pages: 18

DOI: 10.2174/1574891X15666200929150103

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Acne is an infection of the skin that occurs in both men and women during their lifespan. There are various natural or synthetic products available in the market to prevent and cure this disease.

Introduction: The majority of the world population depends on the herbs or natural resources for the relief of acne disease. These are used to lessen the cost of treatment and the side effects of synthetic analogs.

Methods: We have explored the various authentic web resources to compile information regarding different patented and marketed herbal formulations for acne treatment.

Results: It has been found that most of the herbal formulation for acne include the plant actives/extracts having the potential activity against the Propionibacterium acne. The occurrence of this skin disease is also associated with the presence of free radicals in the body, which also causes the inflammation and redness of the skin. Further, the study of various patents also revealed that herbs with anti-oxidant properties have been used in most of the herbal anti-acne formulations. Moreover, the various patents also give the idea that herbal formulations also prevent the appearance of pimples on the skin.

Conclusion: It has been concluded that the herbal anti-acne formulation is not only used to treat acne but also prevents this disease safely and economically.

Keywords: Acne infection, herbs, marketed formulations, patents, phytoconstituents, anti-acne gel, anti- acne cream.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Date AA, Naik B, Nagarsenker MS. Novel drug delivery systems: potential in improving topical delivery of antiacne agents. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2006; 19(1): 2-16.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000089138] [PMID: 16247244]
[2]
Meier L, Stange R, Michalsen A, Uehleke B. Clay jojoba oil facial mask for lesioned skin and mild acne-results of a prospective, observational pilot study. Forsch Komplement Med 2012; 19(2): 75-9.
[PMID: 22585103]
[3]
Bhate K, Lin LY, Barbieri J, Leyrat C, Hopkins S, Stabler R, et al. Is there an association between long-term antibiotics for acne and subsequent infection sequelae and antimicrobial resistance? A systematic review protocol. BMJ Open 2020; 10(7): e033662.
[http://dx.doi.org/110.1136/bmjopen-2019-033662]
[4]
Williams HC, Dellavalle RP, Garner S. Acne vulgaris. Lancet 2012; 379(9813): 361-72.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60321-8] [PMID: 21880356]
[5]
Collier CN, Harper JC, Cantrell WC, Wang W, Foster KW, Elewski BE. The prevalence of acne in adults 20 years and older. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 58(1): 56-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2007.06.045] [PMID: 17945383]
[6]
Gollnick H, Cunliffe W, Berson D, Dreno B, Finlay A, Leyden JJ, et al. Global Alliance to Improve Outcomes in Acne. Management of acne: a report from a global alliance to improve outcomes in acne. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49(1)(Suppl.): S1-S37.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1067/mjd.2003.618] [PMID: 12833004]
[7]
Titus S, Hodge J. Diagnosis and treatment of acne. Am Fam Physician 2012; 86(8): 734-40.
[PMID: 23062156]
[8]
Lai KW, Mercurio MG. Update on the treatment of acne vulgaris. J Chem Mat 2009; 16(3): 115-25.
[9]
Seema A. Recent development of herbal formulation-a novel drug delivery system. Int Ayur Med J 2014; 2(6): 952-68.
[10]
Yadav M, Bhatia VJ, Doshi G, Shastri K. Novel techniques in herbal drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2014; 28(2): 83-9.
[11]
Chandrasekar S, Vijayakumar S, Rajendran R, Rajesh R, Elayarajah B. Herbal-chitosan nanocomposites for durable antibacterial finishing on cotton materials. Int J Biopharm 2013; 4(3): 219-24.
[12]
Shinkafi SA, Ndanusa H. Antibacterial activity of Citrus lemon on acne vulgaris (pimples). Int J Dermatol 2013; 2(5): 397-09.
[13]
Prabuseenivasan S, Jayakumar M, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006; 6: 39-50.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-6-39] [PMID: 17134518]
[14]
Zaika LL. Spices and herbs: their antimicrobial activity and its determination. J Food Saf 1988; 9(2): 97-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.1988.tb00511.x]
[15]
Devi VK, Jain N, Valli KS. Importance of novel drug delivery systems in herbal medicines. Pharmacogn Rev 2010; 4(7): 27-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.65322] [PMID: 22228938]
[16]
Herbal Acne Cream. Available at: www.tradeindia.com/manufacturers/herbal-acne-cream.html.2019.
[17]
Kitagaki K, Ebihara K, Morioka S, Nakamura T, Okada T. External preparation composition. US4886667 (1989).
[18]
Chunxia J, Wenxin W, Jing C. A kind of herbal mixture anti-acne emulsifiable paste and preparation method thereof. CN108143658 (2018).
[19]
Waltman H. Composition for treating acne. US5811101 (1998).
[20]
Ren K. Use of plant Momordica charactia extracts for treatment of acne acid. US6183747 (2001).
[21]
Niazi SK. Composition and method for the prevention and treatment of acne. WO2002085390 (2002).
[22]
Lintner K. Cosmetic and dermo-pharmaceutical compositions for skin prone to acne. US7182963 (2007).
[23]
Lee SK, Kwak WJ, Han CK, Kim JH. Topical formulation for prevention and treatment of acne. US7695741 (2010).
[24]
Lee W. Treatment of acne by topical herbal extract solution. US20050084473 (2005).
[25]
Heng M. Medicine for the treatment of acne and for reversing the signs of age and sun damage and method for using same. US20070003582 (2007).
[26]
Waugh J, Lee J. Compositions and methods for treating acne. US20070048234 (2007).
[27]
Sharma S, Suthar A, Salkar K, Kedar S. Method of treatment for acne and an anti-acne formulation. US9556138 (2007).
[28]
Marshall JM. Aloe vera gel: What is the evidence. Pharm J 1990; 24: 360-2.
[29]
Shahzad MN, Ahmed N. Effectiveness of Aloe Vera gel compared with 1% silver sulphadiazine cream as burn wound dressing in second degree burns. J Pak Med Assoc 2013; 63(2): 225-30.
[PMID: 23894900]
[30]
Shelton RM. Aloe vera. Its chemical and therapeutic properties. Int J Dermatol 1991; 30(10): 679-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-4362.1991.tb02607.x] [PMID: 1823544]
[31]
Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG. Aloe vera: a short review. Indian J Dermatol 2008; 53(4): 163-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.44785] [PMID: 19882025]
[32]
Paulsen E, Korsholm L, Brandrup F. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of a commercial Aloe vera gel in the treatment of slight to moderate psoriasis vulgaris. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2005; 19(3): 326-31.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-3083.2004.01186.x] [PMID: 15857459]
[33]
Ro JY, Lee BC, Kim JY, Chung YJ, Chung MH, Lee SK, et al. Inhibitory mechanism of aloe single component (alprogen) on mediator release in guinea pig lung mast cells activated with specific antigen-antibody reactions. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2000; 292(1): 114-21.
[PMID: 10604937]
[34]
Hutter JA, Salman M, Stavinoha WB, Satsangi N, Williams RF, Streeper RT, et al. Antiinflammatory C-glucosyl chromone from Aloe barbadensis. J Nat Prod 1996; 59(5): 541-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np9601519] [PMID: 8778246]
[35]
O’Brien C, Van Wyk BE, van Heerden FR. Physical and chemical characteristics of Aloe ferox leaf gel. S Afr J Bot 2011; 77: 988-95.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2011.08.004]
[36]
Hossain MS, Mamun-Or-Rashid ANM, Towfique NM, Sen MK. A review on ethnopharmacological potential of Aloe vera L. J Ethno 2013; 2: 113-20.
[37]
Tan Z, Li F, Xing J. Separation and purification of Aloe anthraquinones using PEG/salt aqueous two-phase system. Sep Sci Technol 2011; 46: 1503-10.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01496395.2011.563766]
[38]
Mizuuchi Y, Shi SP, Wanibuchi K, Kojima A, Morita H, Noguchi H, et al. Novel type III polyketide synthases from Aloe arborescens. FEBS J 2009; 276(8): 2391-401.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2009.06971.x] [PMID: 19348024]
[39]
Fitzjarrell EA. Topical spray for treating acne containing niacinamide and NaPCA. US5989523 (1999).
[40]
Taylor MD. Skin therapeutic mixture containing cold-processsed Aloe vera extract, with yellow sap and aloin removed. US5266318 (1993).
[41]
Jeanne AR. Gel containing natural aloe: cosmetic composition with anti-acne and moisturising properties Gel containing aloe vera Barbadensis Miller. FR2555445 (1985).
[42]
Rose MD. Compositions and methods for treating skin conditions in mammals. US20090162304 (2009).
[43]
De Baun D, Pasco DS, Pugh ND, Pashkowsky A, Needleman A. Aloe preparation for skin enhancement. US10543247 (2020).
[44]
Kewei R. A kind of aloe anti-acne face cleaning water and preparation method thereof. CN107519042 (2017).
[45]
Dhayanithi NB, Kumar TT, Kathiresan K. Effect of neem extract against the bacteria isolated from marine fish. J Environ Biol 2010; 31(4): 409-12.
[PMID: 21186711]
[46]
Sridhar KR, Bhat R. Lotus-a potential nutraceutical source. J Agri Tech 2007; 3(1): 143-55.
[47]
Koul O, Isman MB, Ketkar CM. Properties and uses of neem, Azadirachta indica. Can J Bot 1990; 68(1): 1-1.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/b90-001]
[48]
van der Nat JM, van der Sluis WG, ’t Hart LA, Van Dijk H, de Silva KT, Labadie RP. Activity-guided isolation and identification of Azadirachta indica bark extract constituents which specifically inhibit chemiluminescence production by activated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Planta Med 1991; 57(1): 65-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-960021] [PMID: 2062961]
[49]
Nand P, Drabu S, Gupta RK. Insignificant anti-acne activity of leaves and bark. J Pharm Neg Res 2012; 3(1): 29-35.
[50]
Subapriya R, Nagini S. Medicinal properties of neem leaves: a review. Curr Med Chem Anticancer Agents 2005; 5(2): 149-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568011053174828] [PMID: 15777222]
[51]
Biswas K, Chattopadhyay I, Banerjee RK, Bandyopadhyay U. Biological activities and medicinal properties of neem ( Azadirachta indica ). Curr Scie-Banglore 2002; 82(11): 1336-45.
[52]
Govindachari TR. Chemical and biological investigations on Azadirachta indica (The neem tree). Curr Sci 1992; 63(3): 117-22.
[53]
Singh UP, Maurya S, Singh DP. Phenolic acids in neem ( Azadirachta indica ): a major pre-existing secondary metabolites. J Herb Pharmacother 2005; 5(1): 35-43.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/J157v05n01_05] [PMID: 16093234]
[54]
Ara I, Siddiqui BS, Faizi S, Siddiqui S. Structurally novel diterpenoid constituents from the stem bark of Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae). J Chem Soci. Perk Transacl 1989; 2: 343-5.
[55]
Nand P, Drabu S, Gupta RK. Insignificant anti-acne activity of Azadirachta indica leaves and bark. J Pharm Neg Res 2012; 3(1): 29.
[56]
Singh N, Sastri MS. Anti-microbial activity of neem oil. Indian J Pharm 1981; 13: 102-18.
[57]
Stagge CD. Treatment of e.g. psoriasis vulgaris or acne-using Azadirachta indica extract by oral, external or rectal admin, also effective against neuro-dermatitis and Crohn’s disease. DE19528575 (1997).
[58]
Elraz H. Composition for treatment of the skin. US20110250227 (2011).
[59]
Kim K. Soap for curing atopic dermatitis and acne, manufacturing method for thereof. KR20130030399 (2013).
[60]
Chakrabotti A, Dobrial RM, Iyer V, Nair N, Walla S. Topical composition comprising extracts of Azadirachta indica and Momordica charantia or Schistosoma indicum. CN102196813 (2011).
[61]
Peter R. Steeped herbal anti-bacterial body water for consumption and topical use. US20150132234 (2015).
[62]
Simiao YJW. Handmade soap capable of removing acnes and beautifying skin, and preparation method thereof. CN105062725 (2015).
[63]
Kamboj A, Saluja AK. Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) Kurz: phytochemical and pharmacological profile: A review. Pharm Rev 2009; 3(6): 364.
[64]
Oliver-Bever B. Medicinal plants in tropical West Africa. III. Anti-infection therapy with higher plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1983; 9(1): 1-83.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(83)90028-4] [PMID: 6668951]
[65]
Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi. CSIR 1990; 1: 118-22.
[66]
Siddiqui S, Faizi S, Siddiqui BS, Sultana N. Triterpenoids and phenanthrenes from leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Phytochemistry 1989; 28(9): 2433-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)97999-8]
[67]
Akinpelu DA. Antimicrobial activity of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves. Fitoterapia 2000; 71(2): 193-4.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0367-326X(99)00135-5] [PMID: 10727819]
[68]
Mehta SU, Bhat JV. Studies on Indian medicinal plants. II: Bryophylin, a new antibacterial substance from the leaves of Brophyllum calycinum Salisb. J Univ Bombay 1952; 21(3): 21-35.
[69]
Okwu DE, Nnamdi FU. Two novel flavonoids from Bryophyllum pinnatum and their antimicrobial activity. J Chem Pharm Res 2011; 3(2): 1-10.
[70]
Ojewole JA. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae) leaf aqueous extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 99(1): 13-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2005.01.025] [PMID: 15848014]
[71]
Romulo A, Zuhud EAM, Rondevaldova J, Kokoska L. Screening of in vitro antimicrobial activity of plants used in traditional Indonesian medicine. Pharm Biol 2018; 56(1): 287-93.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1462834] [PMID: 29656672]
[72]
Jixiang H, Yuanfang S. Wound spray for treating burn. CN1166393. (2004).
[73]
Danadai AM, DeSousa OV. Nanostructured phytotherapic compositions in Oky Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam) base with cycodextrins, formulations and uses. BR102015017574 (2019).
[74]
Kane SG. Extracts from crassulacean acid metabolism (cam) mechanism plants and uses thereof. WO2002005830 (2002).
[75]
Kawaii S, Tomono Y, Katase E, Ogawa K, Yano M. Quantitation of flavonoid constituents in citrus fruits. J Agric Food Chem 1999; 47(9): 3565-71.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf990153+] [PMID: 10552686]
[76]
Burt S. Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. Int J Food Microbiol 2004; 94(3): 223-53.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2004.03.022] [PMID: 15246235]
[77]
Ortuno A, Baidez A, Gomez P, Arcas MC, Porras I, Garcia-Lidon A, et al. Citrus paradisi and Citrus sinensis flavonoids: their influence in the defence mechanism against Penicillium digitatum. Food Chem 2006; 98(2): 351-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.06.017]
[78]
Duthie G, Crozier A. Plant-derived phenolic antioxidants. Curr Opin Lipidol 2000; 11(1): 43-7.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00041433-200002000-00007] [PMID: 10750693]
[79]
Sultana S, Ali M, Ansari SH, Bagri P. A new sesquiterpene derivative from the fruit peel of Citrus lemon (Linn.). BurmF Scientia Pharm 2007; 75(4): 165-70.
[80]
Keles O, Bakirel T, Alpinar K. Screening of some Turkish plants for antibacterial activity. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 2001; 25(4): 559-65.
[81]
Shahnah SM, Ali S, Ansari H, Bagri P. New sequiterpene derivative from fruit peel of citrus limon (Linn). Burm F Sci Pharm 2007; 75: 165-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3797/scipharm.2007.75.165]
[82]
Ahmad MM, Salim-ur-Rehman Z, Iqbal-Anjum FM, Sultan JI. Genetic variability to essential oil composition in four citrus fruit species. Pak J Bot 2006; 38(2): 319-24.
[83]
Masaki H, Mori H, Okano Y. Microbial lipase inhibitor, skin care preparation for common acne and skin care preparation for dandruff comprising the same. JP2002047194 (2002).
[84]
Ghosh D, Newman K, Joa D, Bendel TJ. Business performance measurements. US20100076812 (2010).
[85]
Lowell S. Business performance measurements. US20100076812 (2010).
[86]
Kamioka H, Takagi G, Takashima H. Anti-acne bacterium composition. JP2006203168 (2006).
[87]
Kokate CK, Gokhale SB, Purohit AP. A textbook of Pharmacognosy. 34th ed. Nirali Prakashan 2013; pp. 117-40.
[88]
Sawant SE, Tajane MD. Formulation and evaluation of herbal ointment containing neem and turmeric extract. J Sci Inno Res 2016; 5(4): 149-51.
[89]
Mishra AK, Mir SA, Sharma MP, Singh H. Alien plant species in Delhi flora. Int J Ear Sci Geo 2015; 5(2): 128-40.
[90]
Anand P, Kunnumakkara AB, Newman RA, Aggarwal BB. Bioavailability of curcumin: problems and promises. Mol Pharm 2007; 4(6): 807-18.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/mp700113r] [PMID: 17999464]
[91]
Anand P, Thomas SG, Kunnumakkara AB, Sundaram C, Harikumar KB, Sung B, et al. Biological activities of curcumin and its analogues (Congeners) made by man and Mother Nature. Biochem Pharmacol 2008; 76(11): 1590-611.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2008.08.008] [PMID: 18775680]
[92]
Chabib L, Martien R, Ismail H. Formulation of nanocurcumin using low viscosity chitosan polymer and its cellular uptake study into T47D cells. Indones J Pharm 2012; 23(1): 27-35.
[93]
Chin SF, Akmar Mohd Yazid SN, Pang SC. Preparation and characterization of starch nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin. Int J Polym Sci 2014; 2014: 8-20.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/340121]
[94]
Marcal H, Wanandy N. Topical compositions. AU2014101530 (2005).
[95]
Nguyen VB. Turmeric for treating skin disorders. US5897865 (1999).
[96]
Riwei Z. A kind of anti-acne essence with anti-inflammatory properties. CN108685826 (2018)
[97]
Kamiezu K. Skin lotion. JP2005239697 (2005).
[98]
Joseph DC, Michael LI, Brian RC. Compositions and methods comprising extracts of Zingiberaceae. WO2016061284 (2016).
[99]
Shimada K, Gullapalli PK, Shintani T, Takaoka S. Method for manufacturing allulose-containing sweetener composition. US20180077958 (2018).
[100]
Seguin MC. Extract of Curcuma longa, useful to slow down unwanted facial and body hair growth or to prevent/combat e.g. acne and hirsutism, obtained from aerial parts of the plant and having reduction/inhibition activity on testosterone metabolism. FR2899109 (2007).
[101]
Milind P, Dev C. Orange: range of benefits. Int Res J Pharm 2012; 3(7): 59-63.
[102]
Stange RR Jr, Midland SL, Eckert JW, Sims JJ. An antifungal compound produced by grapefruit and Valencia orange after wounding of the peel. J Nat Prod 1993; 56(9): 1627-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np50099a029] [PMID: 8254356]
[103]
Yu H, Robert RT, Ho CT. Anti-inflammatory activity of polymethoxyflavones in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and metabolites study of nobiletin. Am Chem Soc 2004; 227: U31-1.
[104]
Keerthi AA, Mendis WS, Jansz ER, Ekanayake S, Perera MS. A preliminary study on the effects of an antibacterial steroidal saponin from Borassus flabellifer L. fruit, on wound healing. J Natl Sci Found Sri Lanka 2007; 35(4)
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v35i4.1317]
[105]
Oben J, Enonchong E, Kothari S, Chambliss W, Garrison R, Dolnick D. Phellodendron and Citrus extracts benefit joint health in osteoarthritis patients: a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Nutr J 2009; 8(1): 38.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-8-38] [PMID: 19682376]
[106]
Sang-Suk K, Jung LA, Ji-Young K. Nam-Ho, Chang-Gu H. Citrus peel wastes as functional materials for cosmeceuticals. J Appli Bio Chem 2008; 51(1): 7-12.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.3839/jabc.2008.002]
[107]
Sasaki K, Yoshizaki F. Nobiletin as a tyrosinase inhibitor from the peel of Citrus fruit. Biol Pharm Bull 2002; 25(6): 806-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.25.806] [PMID: 12081153]
[108]
Nakahara T. Antibacterial agent and external preparation for skin. JP2009114083 (2009).
[109]
Shanta MM, Chathuranga DS. Botanical film forming acne compositions. WO2019240908 (2019).
[110]
Martin A. Acne treating wound healing compositions containing a pyruvate, an antioxidant and a mixture of fatty acids. EP0792163 (2002).
[111]
Lintner K, Chamberlin CM, Mondon P. Cosmetic composition comprising glaucine and its use. WO2007077541 (2007).
[112]
Uchegbu IF, Vyas SP. Non-ionic surfactant based vesicles (niosomes) in drug delivery. Int J Pharm 1998; 172(1-2): 33-70.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0378-5173(98)00169-0]
[113]
Baillie AJ, Florence AT, Hume LR, Muirhead GT, Rogerson A. The preparation and properties of niosomes- non-ionic surfactant vesicles. J Pharm Pharmacol 1985; 37(12): 863-8.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7158.1985.tb04990.x] [PMID: 2868092]
[114]
Nulu JR, Singh CU. Amyris alcohol and its ester for treating acne. WO2012088382 (2012).
[115]
Chunyong YYZ. A kind of formula for dispelling pox. CN106821940 (2017).
[116]
Butnariu M, Dehelean CA, Palicica RD. Pharmaceutical ointment based on marigold flowers grown in zinc-enriched soils and process for preparing the same. RO122836 (2010).
[117]
Knuup C, Knuup CH. Anti-acne cream gel. RU2405534 (2010).
[118]
Alagusundaram M, Chetty MS, Umashankari K, Badarinath AV, Lavanya C, Ramkanth S. Microspheres as a novel drug delivery system-a review. Int J Chemtech Res 2009; 1(3): 526-34.
[119]
Mandava SS, Thavva V. Novel approach: microsponge drug delivery system. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012; 3(4): 967.
[120]
Clarkson C, Maharaj VJ, Crouch NR, Grace OM, Pillay P, Matsabisa MG, et al.In vitro antiplasmodial activity of medicinal plants native to or naturalised in South Africa. J Ethnopharmacol 2004; 92(2-3): 177-91.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.011] [PMID: 15137999]
[121]
Mehnert W, Mader K. Solid lipid nanoparticles: production, characterization and applications. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2012; 64: 83-01.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2012.09.021] [PMID: 11311991]
[122]
Patil JS, Kamalapur MV, Marapur SC, Kadam DV. Ionotropic gelation and polyelectrolyte complexation: the novel techniques to design hydrogel particulate sustained, modulated drug delivery system: a review. Dig J Nanomater Biostruct 2010; 5(1): 241-8.
[123]
ChingChu C, PU M. An antimicrobial composition comprising essential oil and antimicrobial lipid. WO2018166758 (2018).
[124]
Ogawa A, Yasuda Y. Aqueous sticklike antiacne composition. JP2004161623 (2004).
[125]
Marchant NS, Baxter JR, Stansbury WA. Thermoformable double-network hydrogel composition. CN108473652 (2018).
[126]
Willemin C, Remaut G, Moreno AF, Lemoine C. Composition containing a phenanthrenol. US20090018200 (2009).
[127]
Thompson JD, Chalchat JC, Michet A, Linhart YB, Ehlers B. Qualitative and quantitative variation in monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes. J Chem Ecol 2003; 29(4): 859-80.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022927615442] [PMID: 12775148]
[128]
Marino M, Bersani C, Comi G. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L. measured using a bioimpedometric method. J Food Prot 1999; 62(9): 1017-23.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X-62.9.1017] [PMID: 10492476]
[129]
Al Maqtari MA, Alghalibi SM, Alhamzy EH. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil of Thymus vulgaris from Yemen. Turk J Biochem 2011; 36: 342-9.

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy