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Current Drug Metabolism

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1389-2002
ISSN (Online): 1875-5453

Review Article

Directing the Antiretroviral Drugs to the Brain Reservoir: A Nanoformulation Approach for NeuroAIDS

Author(s): Bushra Nabi, Saleha Rehman, Faheem H. Pottoo, Sanjula Baboota and Javed Ali*

Volume 22, Issue 4, 2021

Published on: 23 September, 2020

Page: [280 - 286] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/1389200221666200923151036

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is one of the principal concerns contributing to the global burden and the accompanying deleterious outcomes could not be left unattended. Despite significant advances and innovative research being conducted throughout the globe in order to improve the therapeutic profile of conventionally available antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the eradication of HIV virus reservoirs, its penetration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is still a formidable mission. This makes the central nervous system a dominant and vulnerable site for virus propagation, which ultimately affects the therapeutic potential of the drug administered. Therefore there is an upsurge in the prerequisite of novel technologies to come into play, paving the way for nanotechnology.

Methods: This review primarily provides a comprehensive outline and emphasizes on the nanotechnological techniques employed for the delivery of ARV drugs and their stupendous advantages in overcoming the hurdles associated with the same.

Results: The nanotechnological approach bears the potential of site-specific delivery across the BBB via targeting explicit transport processes and provides a sustained release mechanism. Furthermore, different routes of administration explored have also yielded beneficial outcomes for the delivery of ARV drugs.

Conclusion: The futuristic holistic nanotechnology methods, however, should focus on increasing drug trafficking and permeability across the BBB to ameliorate the therapeutic effect of ARV drugs. Additionally, the domain warrants clinical studies to be undertaken to make the technology commercially viable and a success to deal with the problems of the treatment strategy.

Keywords: Antiretroviral drugs, neuroAIDS, nanoformulations, HIV, blood-brain barrier, drug trafficking.

Graphical Abstract
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