Generic placeholder image



ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Mini-Review Article

Novel Corona-Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Perilous Life- Threatening Epidemic

Author(s): Surya Goel* and Ram Dayal

Volume 2, Issue 2, 2021

Published on: 20 September, 2020

Page: [215 - 222] Pages: 8

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200921094439


Background: The widespread of novel coronavirus is a global concern. With each passing day, the novel coronavirus is making its new borders. Research has revealed that the virus produced in bats and was transmitted to humans firstly in Wuhan, Hubei province of China in December 2019. The contagion has been significantly acting as a vulnerable threat to the copious world.

Objective: The purpose of this review is to provide the valuable and detailed information about the historical background, origin, classification, morphology, transmission pattern, symptoms, treatment parameters, number of cases as well as the preventive measures of the corona-virus disease 2019 (COVID- 19).

Methods: The disease is transmitted to people by inhalation or close contact of infected droplets. To split the sequential chain of this contagious disease, we need to know about its symptoms, ways of transmission, preventive measures and safety guidelines.

Results: The widespread of COVID-19 is a global concern. The morbidity rate due to COVID-19 is increasing regularly. As for now, there is no specific cure, vaccine and treatment; the lives can be saved only by following the preventive measures and safety guidelines.

Conclusion: Several clinical trials are in progress for the development of a suitable vaccine to combat this disease. This review shall be helpful in providing detailed information regarding the novel coronavirus so that the sequences of such infection can be reduced.

Keywords: Novel coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, pneumonia, respiratory disease, transmission pattern.

Pene F, Merlat A, Vabret A, et al. Coronavirus 229E-related pneumonia in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 37(7): 929-32.
[] [PMID: 13130404]
Vijgen L, Keyaerts E, Moës E, Maes P, Duson G, Van Ranst M. Development of one-step, real-time, quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR assays for absolute quantitation of human coronaviruses OC43 and 229E. J Clin Microbiol 2005; 43(11): 5452-6.
[] [PMID: 16272469]
Singhal T. A review of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr 2020; 87(4): 281-6.
[] [PMID: 32166607]
World Health Organization.. Infection prevention and control during health care when COVID-19 is suspected Available from:
Jones BA, Grace D, Kock R, et al. Zoonosis emergence linked to agricultural intensification and environmental change. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110(21): 8399-404.
[] [PMID: 23671097]
van der Hoek L. Human coronaviruses: what do they cause? Antivir Ther (Lond) 2007; 12(4 Pt B): 651-8.
[PMID: 17944272]
Walsh EE, Shin JH, Falsey AR. Clinical impact of human coronaviruses 229E and OC43 infection in diverse adult populations. J Infect Dis 2013; 208(10): 1634-42.
[] [PMID: 23922367]
Gorse GJ, O’Connor TZ, Hall SL, Vitale JN, Nichol KL. Human coronavirus and acute respiratory illness in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Infect Dis 2009; 199(6): 847-57.
[] [PMID: 19239338]
Arbour N, Day R, Newcombe J, Talbot PJ. Neuroinvasion by human respiratory coronaviruses. J Virol 2000; 74(19): 8913-21.
[] [PMID: 10982334]
Jacomy H, Fragoso G, Almazan G, Mushynski WE, Talbot PJ. Human coronavirus OC43 infection induces chronic encephalitis leading to disabilities in BALB/C mice. Virology 2006; 349(2): 335-46.
[] [PMID: 16527322]
Smuts H. Human coronavirus NL63 infections in infants hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infections in South Africa. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2008; 2(4): 135-8.
[] [PMID: 19453465]
Graham RL, Donaldson EF, Baric RS. A decade after SARS: strategies for controlling emerging coronaviruses. Nat Rev Microbiol 2013; 11(12): 836-48.
[] [PMID: 24217413]
Chan-Yeung M, Xu RH. SARS: epidemiology. Respirology 2003; 8(Suppl.): S9-S14.
[] [PMID: 15018127]
Frieman M, Baric R. Mechanisms of severe acute respiratory syndrome pathogenesis and innate immunomodulation. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 2008; 72(4): 672-85.
[] [PMID: 19052324]
Peiris JSM, Guan Y, Yuen KY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome. Nat Med 2004; 10(12)(Suppl.): S88-97.
[] [PMID: 15577937]
World Health Organization.. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Corona-virusAvailable from:
Lim YX, Ng YL, Tam JP, Liu DX. Human Coronaviruses: a review of virus-host interactions. Diseases 2016; 4(3): 1-28.
[] [PMID: 28933406]
Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 497-506.
[] [PMID: 31986264]
Xinhua. China’s CDC detects a large number of new coronaviruses in the South China seafood market in Wuhan. Available from:.
Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 507-13.
[] [PMID: 32007143]
Chan JF, To KK, Tse H, Jin DY, Yuen KY. Interspecies transmission and emergence of novel viruses: lessons from bats and birds. Trends Microbiol 2013; 21(10): 544-55.
[] [PMID: 23770275]
Hoffmann M, Kleine-Weber H, Krüger N, Müller M, Drosten C, Pöhlmann S. The novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) uses the SARS-coronavirus receptor ACE2 and the cellular protease TMPRSS2 for entry into target cells. bioRxiv 2020; 2020: 1-31.
Kolesnikova L, Slenczka W, Brodt H, Klenk H, Becker S. Electron microscopy in diagnostics of SARS case. Microsc Microanal 2003; 9: 438-9.
Marsolais G, Berthiaume L, DiFranco E, Marois P. Rapid diagnosis by electron microscopy of avian coronavirus infection. Can J Comp Med 1971; 35(4): 285-8.
[PMID: 4260941]
Masters PS. The molecular biology of coronaviruses advances in virus research. Massachusetts: Academic Press 2006; pp. 193-292.
Liu DX, Fung TS, Chong KKL, Shukla A, Hilgenfeld R. Accessory proteins of SARS-CoV and other coronaviruses. Antiviral Res 2014; 109: 97-109.
[] [PMID: 24995382]
Jin YH, Cai L, Cheng ZS, et al. A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel corona-virus [2019-nCoV] infected pneumonia. Mil Med Res 2020; 7(4): 1-23.
Cheng VCC, Lau SKP, Woo PCY, Yuen KY. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus as an agent of emerging and reemerging infection. Clin Microbiol Rev 2007; 20(4): 660-94.
[] [PMID: 17934078]
McBride R, Fielding BC. The role of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus accessory proteins in virus pathogenesis. Viruses 2012; 4(11): 2902-23.
[] [PMID: 23202509]
Korean Society of infectious diseases, korean society for healthcare-associated infection control and prevention. An unexpected outbreak of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection in the Republic of Korea, 2015. Infect Chemother 2015; 47(2): 120-2.
[] [PMID: 26157591]
Adhikari SP, Meng S, Wu YJ, et al. Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infect Dis Poverty 2020; 9(1): 29.
[] [PMID: 32183901]
CDC. Novel corona-virus, Wuhan, China. Available from:.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(13): 1199-207.
[] [PMID: 31995857]
World Health Organization.. Novel Corona-virus ChinaAvailable from:
Liu T, Hu J, Kang M, et al. Transmission dynamics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). BioxRiv 2020; 2020: 1.
Gralinski LE, Menachery VD. Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 2020; 12(2): 135-7.
[] [PMID: 31991541]
National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China Pneumonia diagnosis and treatment of 2019-nCoV infection from Chinese NHC and CDC Available from:
Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, et al. Transmission of 2019nCoV infection from an asymptomatic contact in Germany. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 970-1.
[] [PMID: 32003551]
World Health Organization Situation reports Available from:
Kampf G, Todt D, Pfaender S, Steinmann E. Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents. J Hosp Infect 2020; 104(3): 246-51.
[] [PMID: 32035997]
Wang L, Wang Y, Ye D, Liu Q. A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2020; 55(6)105948
Chen H, Guo J, Wang C. Clinical characteristics and intra-uterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. Lancet 2020; 395: 7-13.
Cheng ZJ, Shan J. Novel coronavirus: where we are and what we know. Infection 2020; 48(2): 155-63.
[] [PMID: 32072569]
Wang W, Tang J, Wei F. Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. J Med Virol 2020; 92(4): 441-7.
[] [PMID: 31994742]
Li T, Wei C, Li W, Hongwei F, Shi J. eijing Union Medical College Hospital on "pneumonia of novel coronavirus infection" diagnosis and treatment proposal (V2.0). Med J Peking Union Med Coll Hosp 2020. Available from: . http://kns.cnki. net/kcms/detail/11.5882.r.20200130.1430.002.html
Worldometer. Corona-virus outbreak. Available from:.
Medical expert group of Tongji hospital. The quick guide to the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia for novel coronavirus infections (third edition). Available from:.
Chen ZM, Fu J-F, Shu Q, et al. Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World J Pediatr 2020; 2020: 1-7.
Russell CD, Millar JE, Baillie JK. Clinical evidence does not support corticosteroid treatment for 2019-nCoV lung injury. Lancet 2020; 395(10223): 473-5.
[] [PMID: 32043983]
Zhao JP, Hu Y, Du RH, et al. Expert consensus on the use of corticosteroid in patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 2020; 43: 1-7.
WHO. Clinical management of severe acute respiratory infection when novel coronavirus [nCoV] infection is suspected.[ncov]-infection-is-suspected
Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, et al. Washington State 2019-nCoV Case Investigation Team. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. N Engl J Med 2020; 382(10): 929-36.
[] [PMID: 32004427]
Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, et al. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Res 2020; 30(3): 269-71.
[] [PMID: 32020029]
Jacobs M, Rodger A, Bell DJ, et al. Late Ebola virus relapse causing meningoencephalitis: a case report. Lancet 2016; 388(10043): 498-503.
[] [PMID: 27209148]
Dörnemann J, Burzio C, Ronsse A, et al. First Newborn Baby to Receive Experimental Therapies Survives Ebola Virus Disease. J Infect Dis 2017; 215(2): 171-4.
[] [PMID: 28073857]
Loutfy MR, Blatt LM, Siminovitch KA, et al. Interferon alfacon-1 plus corticosteroids in severe acute respiratory syndrome: a preliminary study. JAMA 2003; 290(24): 3222-8.
[] [PMID: 14693875]
Mustafa S, Balkhy H, Gabere MN. Current treatment options and the role of peptides as potential therapeutic components for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): A review. J Infect Public Health 2018; 11(1): 9-17.
[] [PMID: 28864360]
Gilardin L, Bayry J, Kaveri SV. Intravenous immunoglobulin as clinical immune-modulating therapy. CMAJ 2015; 187(4): 257-64.
[] [PMID: 25667260]
Kumar V, Jung YS, Liang PH. Anti-SARS coronavirus agents: a patent review (2008 - present). Expert Opin Ther Pat 2013; 23(10): 1337-48.
[] [PMID: 23905913]
Hemilä H. Vitamin C intake and susceptibility to pneumonia. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997; 16(9): 836-7.
[] [PMID: 9306475]
Mair-Jenkins J, Saavedra-Campos M, Baillie JK, et al. Convalescent Plasma Study Group. The effectiveness of convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin for the treatment of severe acute respiratory infections of viral etiology: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis. J Infect Dis 2015; 211(1): 80-90.
[] [PMID: 25030060]
Soo YO, Cheng Y, Wong R, et al. Retrospective comparison of convalescent plasma with continuing high-dose methylprednisolone treatment in SARS patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2004; 10(7): 676-8.
[] [PMID: 15214887]
Hung IF, To KK, Lee CK, et al. Convalescent plasma treatment reduced mortality in patients with severe pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 52(4): 447-56.
[] [PMID: 21248066]
Colson P, Rolain JM, Lagier JC, Brouqui P, Raoult D. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine as available weapons to fight COVID-19. Int J Antimicr Agen 2020; p. 105932.
Zarbock A, Kellum JA, Schmidt C, et al. Effect of early vs delayed initiation of renal replacement therapy on mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury: the elain randomized clinical trial. JAMA 2016; 315(20): 2190-9.
[] [PMID: 27209269]
Lim CC, Tan CS, Kaushik M, Tan HK. Initiating acute dialysis at earlier Acute Kidney Injury Network stage in critically ill patients without traditional indications does not improve outcome: a prospective cohort study. Nephrology (Carlton) 2015; 20(3): 148-54.
[] [PMID: 25395245]
World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease [COVID-19] Technical Guidance: Infection Prevention and Control.
Lau JT, Leung PC, Wong EL, et al. The use of an herbal formula by hospital care workers during the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic in Hong Kong to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome transmission, relieve influenza-related symptoms, and improve quality of life: a prospective cohort study. J Altern Complement Med 2005; 11(1): 49-55.
[] [PMID: 15750363]
Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol 2020; 21(3): 335-7.
[] [PMID: 32066541]
High KP. Nutritional strategies to boost immunity and prevent infection in elderly individuals. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33(11): 1892-900.
[] [PMID: 11692301]
Simpson RJ, Kunz H, Agha N, Graff R. Exercise and the Regulation of Immune Functions. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci 2015; 135: 355-80.
[] [PMID: 26477922]

© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy