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ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

COVID-19: Insights into Structure-Function Relationship, Drug Targets and Drug Design Strategies for Novel-Coronavirus 2019

Author(s): Snigdha Bhardwaj, Shaminder Singh and Sonam Bhatia*

Volume 2, Issue 1, 2021

Published on: 18 September, 2020

Page: [30 - 43] Pages: 14

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200918161400


Background: Novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) imposed deadly health calamity with unexpected disastrous situation alarming the globe for urgent treatment regimes. World Health Organization (WHO) termed the coronavirus disease as COVID-2019 on February 11, 2020 and announced its outbreak as pandemic on 11 March 2020. The first infection was noticed in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in December 2019, and it is believed that the corona-virus is transmitted to humans through bats as a reservoir involving human to human transfer. However, the proper intermediary transmission channel is yet to be unestablished.

Methods: Elderly populations and patients with concomitant symptoms are more at risk as compared to middle-aged patients as it may progress to pneumonia followed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and multi-organ failure. Morbidity rates estimated in patients are less, i.e., 2-3%, but the dearth of a specific treatment strategy to prevent coronavirus infection is a major concern.

Results: Currently, anti-viral and anti-malarial drugs are in practice for the management of COVID-19 disease along with plasma therapy in the absence of a potent vaccine. Besides, home isolation and social distancing are the precautionary measures adopted by many countries to minimize the spread of infection. Various studies have been conducted, and numerous are still going on to establish specific treatment for COVID-19.

Conclusion: In this review, we summarized information on the structural components of COVID19 virus with special emphasis on the virus genome, life cycle, the importance of protease enzyme, the role of spike proteins in viral replication, validated drug targets, ongoing effective treatments for COVID-19 management and the latest research on drug design to develop anti-CoV drugs.

Keywords: Coronavirus, COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), pandemic, incubation, qualitative assays, drug targets.

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