Background: Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol product, is used in plant defense from fungal and microbial aggression. It is found naturally, especially in plants such as grapes, peanuts, and berries. It has the highest concentrations in blueberries, mulberries, blackberries, and the skin of red grapes. Resveratrol has various pharmacological properties such as anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, and antineoplastic activities.
Methods: We conducted a literature survey using standard tools such as Google, Reaxys, Scifinder, Scihub, and patent Espacenet to compile the biosynthetic pathways, all organic synthetic methods, and biological activities reported for resveratrol till date.
Results: More than one hundred research articles and patents were referred to write this review. About twenty-five of them are related to chemical synthesis, and the rests are about the source, pharmacological activity, and other properties of resveratrol. This study reveals that many common pathways are involved in various pharmacological activities, which can be useful for treating various diseases based on the pathways involved. Reactions such as Pfitzner-Moffatt oxidation, Wittig-Horner condensation, Mizoroki–Heck, Perkin, Wittig, etc. have been used in resveratrol synthesis. A structure-activity relationship was also established based on its analogs and derivatives.
Conclusion: This review examined and reported all the published biological activities and chemical syntheses of resveratrol apart from the biosynthetic pathway. Due to its valuable biological activities, various synthetic approaches have been reported till date. The reported synthetic operations are suitable for large-scale industrial production. Moreover, these comprehensive synthetic procedures could be utilized in the preparation of stilbenes and other related compounds in future endeavors.