Generic placeholder image

Current Chemical Biology


ISSN (Print): 2212-7968
ISSN (Online): 1872-3136

Research Article

Evaluation of Snake Venom’s PhospholipaseA2 Enzyme Inhibition Activity of Cyphostemma adenocoule

Author(s): Atul Kaushik*, Teamrat S. Tesfai, Daniel K. Barkh, Furtuna K. Ghebremeskel, Habtom G. Zerihun and Saron W. Woldeab

Volume 14, Issue 3, 2020

Page: [196 - 202] Pages: 7

DOI: 10.2174/2212796814999200917114914

Price: $65


Background: A snake bite is fundamentally an injury often resulting in puncture wounds meted out by the animal's fangs and occasionally resulting in envenomation. Rate of snake bites around 5,400,000 bites per year leads to over 2,500,000 envenomings and around 125,000 fatal cases annually. Snake venom enzymes are rich in metalloproteinases, phospholipaseA2, proteinases, acetylcholinesterases and hyaluronidases.

Objective: Cyphostemma adenocoule is traditionally being used for the treatment of snake bites in Eritrea. The present research was aimed at evaluating the snake venom enzyme inhibition activity of C. adenocoule against puff adder venom and developing a base for the traditional use of the plant against snakebites in Eritrea.

Methods: The anti-venom activity of C. adenocoule was assessed in-vitro through phospholipaseA2 enzyme inhibition assay using egg yolk as a cell. The ethanol and chloroform extracts of C. adenocoule showed in vitro anti phospholipase A2 activity, whereas the water extracts of the plant showed no activity.

Results: Among the extracts of C. adenocoule, the highest percentage of inhibition was obtained from chloroform extract (95.55% at 100mg/ml). The extract showed prominent activity at different concentrations (34.7% at10mg/ml, 48.8% at 20mg/ml, 54.8% at 40mg/ml, 60.9% at 60mg/ml, 80.5% at 80mg /ml). The ethanol extract also showed certain activity at various concentrations (25.22% at10mg/ml, 14.78% at 20mg/ml, 2.6% at40mg/ml). The activity of the chloroform extracts increases as concentration increases, whereas the activity of the ethanol extracts decreases as concentration increases. The aqueous extract of C. adenocoule did not show any activity at all concentrations.

Conclusion: In this study, the chloroform and ethanol extracts of the plant inhibited the enzyme of interest and thus proved the efficacy of anti-snake venom activity of the plant.

Keywords: Bitis arietans, Cyphostema adenocoule, hemorrhage, phospholipaseA2, plant extracts, snake venom.

Graphical Abstract
Dhananjaya BL, Zameer F, Girish KS, D’Souza CJ. Anti-venom potential of aqueous extract of stem bark of Mangifera indica L. against Daboia russellii (Russell’s viper) venom. Indian J Biochem Biophys 2011; 48(3): 175-83.
[PMID: 21793309]
Barlow A, Baker K, Hendry CR, et al. Phylogeography of the widespread African puff adder (Bitis arietans) reveals multiple Pleistocene refugia in southern Africa. Mol Ecol 2013; 22(4): 1134-57.
[] [PMID: 23286376]
Warrell DA, Ormerod LD, Davidson NM. Bites by puff-adder (Bitis arietans) in Nigeria, and value of antivenom. BMJ 1975; 4(5998): 697-700.
[] [PMID: 1203728]
Lavonas EJ, Tomaszewski CA, Ford MD, Rouse AM, Kerns WP II. Severe puff adder (Bitis arietans) envenomation with coagulopathy. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 2002; 40(7): 911-8.
[] [PMID: 12507061]
Meenatchi Sundaram S, Parameswari G, Subbraj T, Michael A. Anti-venom activity of medicinal plants-a mini review. Ethnobot Leaflets 2008; 12: 1218-20.
Santosh RF, Shivaji PG. Preliminary screening of herbal plant extracts for anti-venom activity against common sea snake (Enhydrina schistosa) poisoning. Pharmacogn Mag 2004; 16: 56-60.
Alam MI, Gomes A. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2003; 86(1): 75-80.
[] [PMID: 12686445]
Ode OJ, Asuzu IU. The anti-snake venom activities of the methanolic extract of the bulb of Crinum jagus (Amaryllidaceae). Toxicon 2006; 48(3): 331-42.
[] [PMID: 16890262]
Khandelwal KR. Practical pharmacognosy. India, Pune: Nirali Prakashan Publisher 2006; p. 149.
Tan NH, Tan CS. Acidimetric assay for phospholipase A using egg yolk suspension as substrate. Anal Biochem 1988; 170(2): 282-8.
[] [PMID: 3394929]
Janardhan B, Shrikanth VM, Mirajkar KK, More SS. In vitro screening and evaluation of antivenom phytochemicals from Azima tetracantha Lam. leaves against Bungarus caeruleus and Vipera russelli. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2014; 20(1): 12.
[] [PMID: 24690426]
Theakston RD, Reid HA. Development of simple standard assay procedures for the characterization of snake venom. Bull World Health Organ 1983; 61(6): 949-56.
[PMID: 6609011]
Sitta Sittampalam G, Nathan P. Coussens. In. Assay Guidance Manual. Mechanism of Action Assays for Enzymes Eli Lilly and Company and The national center for advancing translational sciences 2012.
Copeland RA. Evaluation of enzyme inhibitors in drug discovery: A guide for medicinal chemists and pharmacologists. New York: Wiley 2005.
Kaushik A, Ambesajir A, Kaushik JJ, Girmay B. Snake venom neutralization effects of african medicinal plants and their impact on snakebites: A Rev Asian J Biomed Pharm Sci 2013; 03(24): 01-6.
Gomes A, Das R, Sarkhel S, et al. Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite. Indian J Exp Biol 2010; 48(9): 865-78.
[PMID: 21506494]
Asuzu IU, Harvey AL. The antisnake venom activities of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) stem bark extract. Toxicon 2003; 42(7): 763-8.
[] [PMID: 14757207]
Rajani M, Shrivastava N, Ravishankara MN. A rapid method for isolation of andrographolide from andrographis paniculata nees (kalmegh). Pharm Biol 2000; 38(3): 204-9.
[] [PMID: 21214463]
Meera G, Kalidhar SB. Chemical constituents of Crataeva nurvala (Buch-ham) leaves. Indian J Pharm Sci 2006; 68: 804-6.
Joshi CS, Priya ES, Mathela CS. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity of colchicinoids from Gloriosa superba seeds. Pharm Biol 2010; 48(2): 206-9.
[] [PMID: 20645842]

Rights & Permissions Print Cite
© 2024 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy