Bone is one of the dynamic tissues in the human body that undergoes continuous remodelling through subsequent actions of bone cells, osteoclasts, and osteoblasts. Several signal transduction pathways are involved in the transition of mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts. These primarily include Runx2, ATF4, Wnt signaling and sympathetic signalling. The differentiation of osteoclasts is controlled by M-CSF, RANKL, and costimulatory signalling. It is well known that bone remodelling is regulated through receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand followed by binding to RANK, which eventually induces the differentiation of osteoclasts. The resorbing osteoclasts secrete TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and gelatinase to digest the proteinaceous matrix of type I collagen and form a saucer-shaped lacuna along with resorption tunnels in the trabecular bone. Osteoblasts secrete a soluble decoy receptor, osteoprotegerin that prevents the binding of RANK/RANKL and thus moderating osteoclastogenesis.
Moreover, bone homeostasis is also regulated by several growth factors like, cytokines, calciotropic hormones, parathyroid hormone and sex steroids. The current review presents a correlation of the probable molecular targets underlying the regulation of bone mass and the role of essential metabolic elements in bone remodelling. Targeting these signaling pathways may help to design newer therapies for treating bone diseases.
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