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Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 1389-5575
ISSN (Online): 1875-5607

Review Article (Mini-Review)

From Antibacterial to Antitumour Agents: A Brief Review on The Chemical and Medicinal Aspects of Sulfonamides

Author(s): Helloana Azevedo-Barbosa, Danielle Ferreira Dias, Lucas Lopardi Franco, Jamie Anthony Hawkes and Diogo Teixeira Carvalho*

Volume 20 , Issue 19 , 2020

Page: [2052 - 2066] Pages: 15

DOI: 10.2174/1389557520666200905125738

Price: $65

Abstract

Sulfonamides have been in clinical use for many years, and the development of bioactive substances containing the sulfonamide subunit has grown steadily in view of their important biological properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antioxidant, and antitumour properties. This review addresses the medicinal chemistry aspects of sulfonamides; covering their discovery, the structure- activity relationship and the mechanism of action of the antibacterial sulfonamide class, as well as the physico-chemical and pharmacological properties associated with this class. It also provides an overview of the various biological activities inherent to sulfonamides, reporting research that emphasises the importance of this group in the planning and development of bioactive substances, with a special focus on potential antitumour properties. The synthesis of sulfonamides is considered to be simple and provides a diversity of derivatives from a wide variety of amines and sulfonyl chlorides. The sulfonamide group is a non-classical bioisostere of carboxyl groups, phenolic hydroxyl groups and amide groups. This review highlights that most of the bioactive substances have the sulfonamide group, or a related group such as sulfonylurea, in an orientation towards other functional groups. This structural characteristic was observed in molecules with distinct antibacterial activities, demonstrating a clear structure-activity relationship of sulfonamides. This short review sought to contextualise the discovery of classic antibacterial sulfonamides and their physico-chemical and pharmacological properties. The importance of the sulfonamide subunit in Medicinal Chemistry has been highlighted and emphasised, in order to promote its inclusion in the planning and synthesis of future drugs.

Keywords: Sulfonamide, sulphonamide, sulfas, antibacterial, bioisostere, anti-tumour, structure-activity relationship.

Graphical Abstract
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