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Coronaviruses

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2666-7967
ISSN (Online): 2666-7975

Review Article

The Outbreak of Novel Coronavirus-a New Type of Threat in 2020: Genesis, Detection, Treatment, and Management

Author(s): S. Dinesh Mohan*, D. Santhosha, V.R.M. Gupta and S. Mrunalini

Volume 2, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 04 September, 2020

Page: [313 - 324] Pages: 12

DOI: 10.2174/2666796701999200905093719

Abstract

Background: COVID-19 is a new, health-threatening infectious disease in the world in 2020 and is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. As of July 13, 2020, 4,881,579 active cases of COVID-19 were diagnosed, and 571,080 deaths were reported globally. In India, 301,850 active cases and 23,187 deaths were reported. To date, no effective treatment is available against the deadly virus SARS-CoV-2. Drug manufacturers, institutional laboratories, and other organizations have started developing vaccines to combat COVID-19 infection.

Methods: Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, Scopus, and Nature databases were referred to know the current scenario of the disease. Moreover, recent data have been obtained from the World Health Organization, Centre of Disease Control, case studies, newspapers, and Worldometer reports. Data of Vaccine Centre at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Clinicaltrials.gov, and US National Library of Medicine have also been accessed to obtain the latest information about ongoing clinical trials.

Results: The primary source of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak is connected to the Hunan seafood and live animal market in Wuhan city, Hubei Province, China. Like; SARS-CoV, and MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV- 2 is also a zoonotic virus affecting the lower respiratory tract in humans. The pathogenesis of COVID- 19 involves attachment of its Spike (S) protein to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor in the lower respiratory tract in humans. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, cough, sore throat, fatigue, headache, myalgia, septic shock, and breathlessness. Few patients with COVID-19 infection experience diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Currently, FDA approved drugs being used to treat COVID-19.

Conclusion: This review article presents the importance of traditional Indian herbs recommended by AYUSH as precautionary and curative measures of COVID-19 until vaccines and drugs are made available. Moreover, this article discussed the origin, symptoms, mode of transmission, management, and diagnostics techniques for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Keywords: COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, corona virus, novel corona virus-infected pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor.

Graphical Abstract
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