Background: B814, now’s called Coronavirus first identified by Tyrrell and Bynoe in 1965 from the respiratory tract (embryonic tracheal) of an adult and later on during working on National Institutes of Health Robert Chanock used the term “OC” for same virus strain. After several years researchers reported that coronaviruses were caused disease in rats, mice, chickens, turkeys, calves, dogs, cats, rabbits etc. after effecting the enormous variety of animal, in year 2002-2003 it caused new respiratory disease named severe acute respiratory syndrome, (SARS) in southern China.
Objective: The main objective of this article is to compare the status of various previous pandemics (i.e., SARS, MERS) with the current COVID-19 pandemic in terms of the life cycle, diagnosis process and prevention.
Results: On 31st December 2019, the World Health Organization (WHO) office in China received information regarding pneumonia cases of unknown etiology from the Wuhan district in central China. Subsequently, this new disease spread to China, and from there, to the rest of the world. By the end of March 2020, more than 2 million cases were confirmed of this new disease, with over 70000 deaths worldwide. After some time, researchers have identified that this new disease is caused by a novel beta- Coronavirus (virus SARS-CoV-2) and the new disease was named COVID-19. Since then, the Ministry of Health of various countries and WHO have been fighting this health emergency, which has not only affected public health, but also affected various economic sectors.
Conclusion: The current outbreak SARS-CoV-2 phylogenetically resembled to Bat SARS, which was previously identified in year 2002 and 2012 having low mortality rate than MERS and SARS. However, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS having high virological similarity but both use different receptors to take entry in to the host cell via ACE-2 and DPP-4 respectively. Unfortunately, currently there is no approved treatment available worldwide. Currently, we can hope that together we will recover from this public health emergency very soon.