Background: Snakebite envenomation is a global priority ranked top among other neglected tropical diseases. There is a folkloric claim that Uvaria chamae is beneficial for the management of snakebite and wounds in African ethnobotanical surveys. Besides, there are many registered patents asserting the health benefits of U. chamae.
Objective: This study aimed to investigate U. chamae’s potentials and identify candidates for the development of tools for the treatment and management of N. nigricollis envenomation.
Methods: Freshly collected U. chamae leaves were air-dried, powdered, and extracted in methanol. The median lethal dose of the extract was determined and further fractionated with n-hexane, n-butanol and ethyl acetate. Each fraction was tested for neutralizing effect against venom-induced haemolytic, fibrinolytic, hemorrhagic, and cytotoxic activities.
Results: U. chamae fractions significantly (p<0.05) neutralized the haemolytic activity of N. nigricollis venom in n-butanol; 31.40%, n-hexane; 33%, aqueous residue; 39.60% and ethyl acetate; 40.70% at the concentration of 100mg/ml of each fraction against 10mg/ml of the snake venom when compared to the positive control. The fibrinolytic activity of N. nigricollis venom was significantly (p<0.05) neutralized in n-hexane at 73.88%, n-butanol; 72.22% and aqueous residue; 72.22% by the fractions of U. chamae. In addition, haemorrhagic activity of N. nigricollis venom was significantly (p<0.05) neutralized by U. chamae fractions at the concentrations of 100mg/ml, 200mg/ml and 400mg/ml except for n-butanol and aqueous residues at 400 mg/ml.
Conclusion: U. chamae leaves fractions possess a high level of protection against N. nigricollis venoms-induced lethality and thus validate the pharmacological rationale for its usage in the management of N. nigricollis envenomation.
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