Background: Drug repurposing, the application of known drugs and compounds with a primary non-oncology purpose, might be an attractive strategy to offer more effective treatment options to cancer patients at a low cost and reduced time.
Methods: This review described a total of 10 kinds of non-oncological drugs from more than 100 mechanical studies as well as evidence from population-based studies. The future direction of repurposed drug screening is discussed by using patient-derived tumor organoids.
Results: Many old drugs showed previously unknown effects or off-target effects and can be intelligently applied for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. The identification of repurposed drugs needs to combine evidence from mechanical studies and population-based studies. Due to the heterogeneity of cancer, patient-derived tumor organoids can be used to screen the non-oncological drugs in vitro.
Conclusion: These identified old drugs could be repurposed in oncology and might be added as adjuvants and finally benefit patients with cancers.