Generic placeholder image

Recent Innovations in Chemical Engineering

Editor-in-Chief

ISSN (Print): 2405-5204
ISSN (Online): 2405-5212

Research Article

Catalytic Neutralization of Naphthenic Acid from Petroleum Crude Oil by Using Cerium Oxide Catalyst and 2- Methylimidazole in Polyethylene Glycol

Author(s): Norshahidatul Akmar Mohd Shohaimi*, Norfakhriah Jelani, Ahmad Zamani Ab Halim, Nor Hakimin Abdullah and Nurasmat Mohd Shukri

Volume 14, Issue 3, 2021

Published on: 19 August, 2020

Page: [219 - 227] Pages: 9

DOI: 10.2174/2405520413999200819171315

Price: $65

Abstract

Background: The presence of relatively high naphthenic acid in crude oil may contribute to the major corrosion in oil pipelines and distillation units in crude oil refineries. Thus, high concentration naphthenic acid crude oil is considered to be of low quality and is marketed at lower prices. In order to overcome this problem, the neutralization method had been developed to reduce the TAN value in crude oil. In this study, crude oil from Petronas Penapisan Melaka was investigated.

Methods: The parameters studied were reagent concentration, catalyst loading, calcination temperature, and reusability of the potential catalyst. The basic chemical used was 2- methylimidazole in polyethylene glycol (PEG 600) with concentration 100, 500 and 1000 ppm. Cerium oxide-based catalysts were supported onto alumina prepared with different calcination temperatures.

Results: The catalyst was characterized by using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetry Analysis-Differential Thermal Gravity (TGA-DTG) to study the physical properties of the catalyst. The Ce/Al2O3 catalyst calcined at 1000°C was the best catalyst due to larger surface area formation which lead to an increment of active sites thus will boost catalytic activity. The result showed that the Ce/Al2O3 catalyst meets the Petronas requirement as the TAN value reduced to 0.6 mgKOH/g from the original TAN value of 4.22 mgKOH/g.

Conclusion: The best reduction of TAN was achieved by using catalyst loading of 0.39% and reagent of 1000 ppm.

Keywords: Catalyst, crude oil, naphthenic acids, neutralization, petroleum, total acid number.

Graphical Abstract
[1]
Hardacre C, Goodrich P, Anderson K. Processing for removing organic acids from crude oil and crude oil distillates. US Pat No. 20120132564 2012.
[2]
Wang YZ, Sun XY, Liu YP, Liu CG. Removal of naphthenic acids from a diesel fuel by esterification. Energy Fuels 2007; 21(2): 941-3.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef060501r]
[3]
Shi LJ, Shen BX, Wang GQ. Removal of naphthenic acids from Beijiang crude oil by forming ionic liquids. Energy Fuels 2008; 22(6): 4177-81.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef800497p]
[4]
Fu Z, Dai S, Tian J, Long S, Hou X. Catalytic decarboxylation of petroleum acids from high acid crude oils over solid acid catalysts. Energy Fuels 2008; 22: 1923-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ef7006547]
[5]
Zhang A, Ma Q, Wang K, Liu X, Shuler P, Tang Y. Naphthenic acid removal from crude oil through catalytic decarboxylation on magnesium oxide. Appl Catal A Gen 2006; 303(1): 103-9.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apcata.2006.01.038]
[6]
Shohaimi NAM, Bakar WAWA, Jaafar J. Catalytic neutralization of acidic crude oil utilizing ammonia in ethylene glycol basic solution. J Ind Eng Chem 2014; 20(4): 2086-94.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.09.037]
[7]
Chen J. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis: Teachings of the thermal energy and power engineering course; World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Social, Behavioral, Educational, Economic. Business Indust Engineer 2014; 8(12): 3915-8.
[8]
Shohaimi NAM, Jaafar J, Bakar WAWA. Effect of Cu addition onto CaO/Al2O3 catalyst for naphthenic acid removal from crude oil. Adv Mat Res 2015; 1107: 79-84.
[9]
Wang YZ, Duan HL, Song CM, Han XT, Ma XR. Removal of naphthenic acids from crude oils by catalytic decomposition using Mg–Al hydrotalcite/γ-Al2O3 as a catalyst. Fuel 2014; 134: 499-504.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2014.06.026]
[10]
Alipour Z, Rezaei M, Meshkani F. Effect of alkaline earth promoters (MgO, CaO, and BaO) on the activity and coke formation of Ni catalysts supported on nanocrystalline Al2O3 in dry reforming of methane. J Ind Eng Chem 2014; 20(5): 2858-63.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2013.11.018]
[11]
Shukri NM, Bakar WAWA, Jaafar J, Majid ZA. Removal of naphthenic acids from high acidity Korean crude oil utilizing catalytic deacidification method. J Ind Eng Chem 2015; 28: 110-6.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.02.005]
[12]
Shohaimi NAM, Bakar WAWA, Jaafar J. The catalytic deacidification of acidic crude oil using Cu-doped alkaline earth metal oxide catalysts. Petrol Sci Technol 2017; 35(11): 1097-103.
[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10916466.2017.1303723]

Rights & Permissions Print Export Cite as
© 2022 Bentham Science Publishers | Privacy Policy