Background: Cell adhesion, as dynamic interactions between cell-cell and cell-matrix, has an essential role in cancer cell migration. Integrins as cell membrane receptors are involved in cell adhesion and signal transduction. Aberrant expression of integrins is associated with the cancer cell adhesion.
Objective: Targeting the process of cell adhesion and migration could be helpful to prevent cancer cell metastasis. Amygdalin is a cyanoglycoside compound with anti-cancer properties, while its effect on cancer cell adhesion is not completely clear.
Methods: The cytotoxic effect of amygdalin on breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB- 231) and human skin fibroblast cell line as a normal cell, was evaluated through MTT assay. The cell adhesion assay and wound healing assay were performed to determine amygdalin effects on adhesion and migration of cancer cells. Further analysis was carried out to evaluate integrin α and β levels through real-time PCR.
Results: We demonstrated that amygdalin diminished the cell viability of both cell lines in a time and dose-dependent manner, while amygdalin did not have any toxicity on the human skin fibroblast cell line in the same dosages. Following amygdalin treatment, the adhesion of both studied cell lines to fibronectin and collagen I decrease, and this reduction is significantly greater in the case of binding to fibronectin compared to binding to collagen. The MDA-MB-231 cell migration was decreased greater than MCF-7 cells. The levels of α and β integrin were differentially regulated by amygdalin in both cancer cell lines.
Conclusion: These results suggest that depending on cancer cell lines, amygdalin affects cancer cell adhesion and migration.
Keywords: Amygdalin, adhesion, migration, breast cancer, integrin, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231.