Background: The world's population is still growing, having an impact on the environment and the economic growth of developing countries; so that, there is a particular interest in the development of new fertility control methods, focused on male contraception.
Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of methanolic extracts of leaf and fruit of Azadirachta indica on sperm quality and testicular histology of Long Evans rats.
Methods: Antifertility effects of a methanolic leaf and fruit extracts of A. indica on 24 male rats were investigated. The animals were randomly divided into two control groups and four treatment groups (n=4). Doses of the leaf and fruit extract were given at concentrations of 100 and 200 μg mL-1.
Results: A significant decrease in the viability of sperm cells was observed. The leaf extract at a concentration of 200 μg mL-1 inhibited cell viability compared to the negative control (p< 0.001). The percentage of abnormal cells in leaf extract was shown in 100 and 200 μg mL-1, the conditions at which a higher percentage of morphological irregularities of observed (15% and 16% respectively). The results show that there was cellular detachment in the seminiferous epithelium in the experimental groups treated with methanolic extracts. Sperm death was observed without decreasing the number of sperm.
Conclusion: The methanolic extracts of Azadirachta indica have a modulating effect on the spermatogenesis of experimental rats through sperm morphological alterations.
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